In vitro ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, MINERAL AND VITAMIN COMPOSITIONS OF NERA BLACK EGG CUTICLE

Main Article Content

KINGSLEY OMOGIADE IDAHOR

Abstract

Avian egg cuticle serves as a barrier to movement of particles, water and microorganisms into the egg. It is speculated to be rich in nutrients with antimicrobial characteristics in ovo but, not clear if these characteristics will be exhibited in vitro. The study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity, mineral and vitamin compositions of Nera Black egg cuticle. Fresh maize cobs were cooked, left overnight and 30 eggs were boiled in the broth for 10 minutes, again left overnight with the eggs completely submerged in the broth. The boiled eggs were carefully removed, rubbed gently with fingers and scraped slightly with knife to harvest the cuticle. Samples of the cuticle were air-dried, processed for mineral, vitamin and microbial sensitivity determination following standard procedures. The results indicated that Nera Black egg cuticle contained calcium (123.7 mg/100 g), phosphorus (313.6 mg/100 g), iron (17.7 mg/100 g), sodium (112.6 mg/100 g), potassium (335.5 mg/100 g) and magnesium (26.4 mg/100 g). Also, zinc (1.12 mg/100 g), copper (0.25 mg/100 g), selenium (0.006 mg/100 g) and manganese (0.205 mg/100 g) were detected in the egg cuticle. More importantly, vitamins A (828.64 µg/100 g), B1 (0.515 mg/100 g), B2 (0.016 mg/100 g), B3 (0.77 mg/100 g), B6 (0.53 mg/100 g), C (1.68 mg/100 g) and E (7.31 µg/100 g) were found in the egg cuticle. Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were resistant to the egg cuticle in vitro. So, avian egg cuticle maybe added to livestock feed to improve the nutritional quality but, may not be suitable as an antimicrobial agent. Nevertheless, in depth investigations on antimicrobial potency of crude and extracted components of avian egg cuticle is pertinent to consolidate earlier reports.

Keywords:
Avian egg cuticle, eggshell pigmentation, microbial resistance, Nera Black, poultry feed

Article Details

How to Cite
IDAHOR, K. O. (2020). In vitro ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, MINERAL AND VITAMIN COMPOSITIONS OF NERA BLACK EGG CUTICLE. BIONATURE, 40(2), 21-30. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/BN/article/view/869
Section
Original Research Article

References

Kodali VK, Gannon SA, Paramasivam S, Raje S, Polenova T, Thorpe C. A novel disulfide-rich protein motif from avian eggshell membranes. PLoS One. 2011;6:e18187.

Nys Y, Guyot N. Egg formation and chemistry. In: Nys, Y., Bain, M. and Van Immerseel. F. (ed). Improving the safety and quality of eggs and egg products. Woodhead Pub Ltd, Cambridge UK. 2011;1: 83-132.

Wilson PW, Suther CS, Bain MM, Icken W, Jones A, Quinlan-Pluck F, Olori V, Gautron Z, Dunn IC. Understanding avian egg cuticle formation in the oviduct: A study of its origin and deposition. Biol Reprod. 2017;97(1):39-49. Available:http://doi:10.1093/biolre/iox070

Samiullah S, Roberts JR. The location of protoporphyrin in the eggshell of brown-shelled eggs. Poult Sci. 2013; 92:2783-2788.

Lang MR, Wells JW. A review of eggshell pigmentation. World’s Poult Sci J. 1987;43:238-246.

Board RG, Tranter HS. The microbiology of eggs. In: Stadelman WJ, Cotterill OJ (ed) Egg Science and Technology. AVI Publishing Company Inc., Westport, CT; 1986.

D'Alba L, Jones DN, Badawy HT, Eliason CM, Shawkey MD. Antimicrobial properties of a nanostructured eggshell from a compost-nesting bird. J Exp Biol. 2014;217:1116-1121.

Rodríguez-Navarro AB, Domínguez-Gasca N, Muñoz A, Ortega-Huertas M. Change in the chicken eggshell cuticle with hen age and egg freshness. Poult Sci. 2013;92:3026-3035.

Bruce J, Drysdale EM. Trans-shell transmission. In: Board RG, Fuller R (ed) Microbiology of the Avian Egg. Chapman & Hall, London, UK; 1994.

Rose-Martel M, Du J, Hincke MT. Proteomic analysis provides new insight into the chicken eggshell cuticle. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2697-2706.

Nys Y, Hincke MT, Arias JL, Garcia-Ruiz JM, Solomon SE. Avian eggshell mineralization. Poult Avian Biol Rev. 1999;10:143-166.

Romanoff AL, Romanoff AJ. The avian egg. John Wiley and Sons, New York; 1949.

Wellman-Labadie O, Lemaire S, Mann K, Picman J, Hincke MT. Antimicrobial activity of lipophilic avian eggshell surface extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:10156-10161.

Wellman-Labadie O, Picman J, Hincke MT. Antimicrobial activity of the Anseriform outer eggshell and cuticle. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2008a;149:640-649.

Wellman-Labadie O, Lakshmi-Narayanan R, Hincke MT. Antimicrobial properties of avian eggshell-specific C-type lectin-like proteins. FEBS Letters. 2008b;582: 699-704.

Abdou AM, Kim M, Sato K. Functional proteins and peptides of hen’s egg origin. In: Bioactive food peptides in health and disease. INTECH Publishers. 2013;115-144.
Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/54003

Chen X, Li X, He Z, Hou Z, Xu G, Yang N, Zheng J. Comparative study of eggshell antibacterial effectivity in precocial and altricial birds using Escherichia coli. PLoS One. 2019; 14(7):e0220054. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal

NIMET. Nigeria Metrological Agencies, Synoptic Office, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; 2011.

Idahor KO, Idahor CO. What separated the cuticle from the avian eggshell is unknown: could it be the yellow maize broth or heat? Asian J Biotechnol Biores Technol. 2017; 1(2):1-8.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, AOAC. 2263 (18th Ed.) Washington, DC; 2006.

Bedrani L, Helloin E, Guyot, N, Rehault-Godbert S, Nys Y. Passive maternal exposure to environmental microbes selectively modulates the innate defences of chicken egg white by increasing some of its antibacterial activities. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:13.

Guyot N, R´ehault-Godbert S, Slugocki C, Harichaux G, Labas V, Helloin E, Nys Y. Characterization of egg white antibacterial properties during the first half of incubation: A comparative study between embryonated and unfertilized eggs. Poult Sci. 2016;95:2956-2970.
Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew271

Réhault-Godbert S, Guyot N, Nys Y. The golden egg: Nutritional value, bioactivities and emerging benefits for human health. Nutrients. 2019; 11:684.
DOI: 10.3390/nu11030684

Onyenweaku EO, Ene-Obong HN, Williams IO, Nwaehujor CO. Comparison of nutritional composition of bird egg varieties found in southern Nigeria: A preliminary study. Food Nutr Sci. 2018;9:868-879.
Available:http://www.scirp.org/journal/fns

Attia YA, Al-Harthi MA, Shiboob MM. Evaluation of quality and nutrient contents of table eggs from different sources in the retail market. Ital J Anim Sci. 2014;13(2):3294.
DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2014.3294

Schaafsma A, Pakan I, Hofstede GJH, Muskiet FAJ, Van Der Veer E, De Vries PJF. Mineral, amino acid and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition. Poult Sci. 2000;79:1833-1838.

Goran GV, Crivineanu V, Tudoreanu L, Udrea D. Dynamics of some mineral elements in hen eggs. Bull UASVM Vet Med. 2010;67(2).
ISSN: 1843-5270; 1843-5378.

Zang H, Zhang K, Ding X, Bai S, Hernandes JM, Yao B. Effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin deposition in the whole egg of laying hens. Braz J Poult Sci. 2011;13(3): 189-196.

FAO. Poultry feed availability and nutrition in developing countries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Poultry Development Review, Rome; 2000.

Olomu JM. Monogastric animal nutrition. Principles and Practice (2nd edn). St. Jackson Publication: Benin City, Nigeria; 2011.

Richards JD, Zhao J, Harrell RJ, Atwell CA, Dibner JJ. Trace mineral nutrition in poultry and swine. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 2010;23(11):1527-1534.

NRC. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry (Ninth Revised Edition). National Research Council, National Academies Press. 1994;176.
Available:https://doi.org/10.17226/2114

Adeyeye EI. Comparative study on the characteristics of egg shells of some bird species. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009;23(2):159-166.

Bain MM, McDade K, Burchmore R, Law A, Wilson PW, Schmutz M, Preisinger R, Dunn IC. Enhancing the egg’s natural defence against bacterial penetration by increasing cuticle deposition. Anim Genet. 2013; 44:661-668.

Radkowski M. Przenikanie pałeczek salmonella przez skorupę do wnętrza jaj. Medycyna; 1996.

Board RG, Loseby S, Miles VR. A note on microbial growth on eggshells. Br Poult Sci. 1979;20:413–420.

Wellman-Labadie O, Picman J, Hincke MT. Antimicrobial activity of cuticle and outer eggshell protein extracts from three species of domestic birds. Br Poult Sci. 2008c; 49(2):133-43.
DOI: 10.1080/00071660802001722

Irokanulo EO, Nwonuma CO, Chukwudi FC. In vitro antimicrobial potential of Coturnix japonica eggshell and membrane powder. Nat Prod Ind J. 2018;14(1):115.