EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FEEDING REGIMES ON TONIC IMMOBILITY, RECTAL TEMPERATURE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF COBB BROILERS

Main Article Content

GBEMIGA OLADIMEJI ADEYEMO
KINGSLEY OMOGIADE IDAHOR
BUKOLA I. OYEBANJI

Abstract

In commercial poultry production, profit could be maximized by reducing cost of feeding through feed restriction, which could also reduce abdominal fat accumulation without detrimental effects on the birds’ performance. Unfortunately, there are little or no information on performance characteristics of Cobb broilers that is gradually gaining popularity for its dual purpose capability in Nigeria. Hence, the present trial monitored tonic immobility, rectal temperature and carcass characteristics of Cobb broilers placed on different feeding regimes. Results showed that tonic immobility induction was similar across the treatments with values ranging from 1.13 sec (T3) to 1.50 sec (T2). Similar trend was observed in tonic immobility duration that varied between 159.1 and 266.3 sec. Statistical variations (P= .05) were observed in rectal temperature at 3 weeks old, with the lowest value (41.14°C) in control (T1) and highest (41.6°C) in T3. At 6 weeks old, the rectal temperature was similar and ranged from 41.46 – 41.61°C in T2, T3 and T4, respectively, which were significantly higher (P= .05) than 41.34°C recorded in control. At the end of the study, body weight was not statistically different (P= .05) across the treatments but, varied between 860.2 g (T4) and 916 g (T3). Dressing percentage was best (64.97%) in T4, followed by 64.59%, 62.69% and 62.2% in T1, T3 and T2, accordingly. While the abnormal fat was as high as 1.23% in control birds, it was between 0.63 and 0.94% in the treated birds. This probably suggested normal physiological status hence, Cobb broilers may thrive well on feed restriction.

Keywords:
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FEEDING REGIMES ON TONIC IMMOBILITY, RECTAL TEMPERATURE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF COBB BROILERS, lean chicken, feed restriction, broiler nutrition

Article Details

How to Cite
ADEYEMO, G. O., IDAHOR, K. O., & OYEBANJI, B. I. (2020). EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FEEDING REGIMES ON TONIC IMMOBILITY, RECTAL TEMPERATURE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF COBB BROILERS. BIONATURE, 40(2), 1-10. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/BN/article/view/867
Section
Original Research Article

References

Raloff J. Food for thought: Global food trends; 2003. (Accessed March 2019)
Available at: https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/ food-thought/global-food-trends

Londok JMR, Rompis JEG. The effect of early feed restriction on the commercial pieces of two broiler chicken strains. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 2020;411:012029.

FAO. Poultry production system. Food and Agricultural Organization FAO, Health Paper. 2004;19:102-103.

Idahor KO, Yakubu A, Egahi JO, Gwaza DS, Ahmadu GB, Thani AP. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and cost benefits of four broiler strains on restricted feeding regimen in North Central Nigeria. J. Anim. Sci. Adv. 2013;3(9):449-456.

Ozkan S, Plavnik I, Yahav S. Effects of early feed restriction on performance and ascites development in broiler chickens subsequently raised at low ambient temperature. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 2006;15:9-19.

Saleh EA, Watkins SE, Waldroup AL, Waldroup PW. Effects of early feed restriction on live performance and carcass composition of male broilers grown for further processing. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 2005;14:87–93.

Fondevila G, Archs JL, Camara L, de Juan AF, Mateos GG. The length of the feed restriction period affects eating behaviour, growth performance and the development of the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract of young broilers. Poultry Science. 2020;99:1010–1018.
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.10.011

Shafiei A, Khavarinezhad S, Javandel F, Nosrati M, Seidavi A, Diarra SS. Effects of duration of early feed withdrawal and re-feeding on growth, carcass traits, plasma constituents and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2018;46(1):1358–1362.
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2018.1509004

Gous RM, Cherry P. Effects of body weight at and lighting regimen and growth curve to, 20 weeks on laying performance in broiler breeders. Brit. Poult. Sci. 2004;45:445–452.

Hassanabadi A, Moghaddam H. Effect of early feed restriction on performance characteristics and serum thyroxin of broiler chickens. Int’l J. Poult. Sci. 2006;5(12):1156-1159.

Osbourn DF, Wilson PN. Effects of different patterns of allocation of a restricted quantity of food upon the growth and development of cockerels. J. Agric. Sci. 1960;54:278-289.

Butzen FM, Ribeiro AML, Vieira MM, Kessler AM, Dadalt JC, Della MP. Early feed restriction in broilers. I–Performance, body fraction weights and meat quality. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 2013;22:251–259.
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00639

Amer SA, Omar AE, Mohamed WAM, Gharib HSA, El-Eraky WA. Impact of betaine supplementation on the growth performance, tonic immobility and some blood chemistry of broiler chickens fed normal and low energy diets during natural summer stress. Zagazig Veterinary Journal. 2018;46(1):37–50.
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1232385

Gudev D, Moneva P, Popova-Ralcheva S, Sredkova V. Tonic immobility and adrenal response in chickens fed supplemental tryptophan. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci. 2011;17(4):560-566.

Jones RB. The tonic immobility reaction of the domestic fowl: A review. World's Poult. Sci. J. 1986;42(1):82-96.
DOI: 10.1079/WPS19860008

Vegger JB, Brüel A, Dahlgaard AF, Thomsen JS. Alterations in gene expression precede sarcopenia and osteopenia in botulinum toxin immobilized mice. J. Musculoskelet. Neuronal Interact. 2016;16:355–368.

Fogelholm J, Inkabi S, Höglund A, Abbey-Lee R, Johnsson M, Jensen P, Henriksen R, Wright D. Genetical genomics of tonic immobility in the chicken. Genes. 2019;10:341.
DOI:10.3390/genes10050341.www.mdpi.com/journal/genes

Wikipedia. Ibadan location in Nigeria; 2019.
(Accessed March 2020)
Available:https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ibadan&oldid=941308619

AOAC. Official methods of analysis. Vol. 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA; 2002.

Jones RB. A standard method of dissection of poultry for carcass analysis. Technical Bulletin No. 222, West Scotland; 1984.

SAS. Statistical analysis systems. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics software. Cary, NC, SAS Institute; 2007.

Olomu JM. Monogastric animal nutrition, principles and practice. 2nd Edn. Jachem Publication, Benin City, Nigeria; 2011.

Ghareeb K, Bohm J. Fear behaviour, ease of capture and performance traits of growing meat type chickens. Int’l J. Poult. Sci. 2008;7(12):1185-1189.

Yildirim M, Taskin A. The effects of environmental enrichment on some physiological and behavioural parameters of broiler chicks. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 2017;19(2):355-362.

Gallup G. G. Jr., Creekmore HS, Hill WE. Shock-enhanced immobility reactions in chickens: Support for the fear hypothesis. Psychol. Rec. 1970;20:243-245.

Gallup G. G. Jr., Nash RF, Doneyan NH, McClure MK. The immobility response: A predator-induced reaction in chickens. Psychol. Res. 1971;21:513-519.

Gallup GG, Rosen TS, Brown CW. Effect of conditioned fear on tonic immobility in domestic chickens. J Comp Physiol. Psychol. 1972;78:22-25.

Erhard HW, Mendl M, Christiansen SB. Individual differences in tonic immobility may reflect behavioural strategies. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 1999;64:31-46.

Eleroglu H, Yildirim A, Duman M, Sekeroglu A. The welfare of slow growing broiler genotypes reared in organic system. Emir. J. Food and Agric. 2015;27(5):454-459.

Xie J, Tang L, Lu L, Zhang L, Lin X, Liu HC, Odle J, Luo X. Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones and oxidant status in restrictedly fed broiler breeders. Poult. Sci. 2015;94:1635-1644.

Isidahomen CE, Jidda AA, Olatunji EA. Heat tolerant traits among local and exotic chickens in Southern Nigerian. IOSR J. Agric. Vet. Sci. 2012;1(6):31-36.

Justin E. Heat stress in poultry: Solving the problem. 2004;28.
(Accessed June 2019).
Available at: www.gov.uk/.../69373/pb10543-heat-stress-050330.pdf

Medeiros CM. Ajuste de modelos e determinação de índice térmico ambiental de produtividade para frangos de corte. Tese apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Como parte das exigências do Programa de PósGraduação em Engenharia Agrícola para obtenção do título de “Doctor Scientiae”. 2001;125.

Aro SO, Osho IB, Awoneye OO. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures of Isa brown and Harco black layers fed different levels of dietary acetylsalicylic acid. Anim. Res. Int’l. 2017;14(1):2691-2696.

Yakubu A, Idahor KO, Usman EA, Jonathan LF, Musa-Azara IS. Effect of feed restriction on growth performance, body conformation, carcass characteristics and cost-benefit in broiler chickens. Wayamba J Anim Sci. 2013;2:P704-P713. ISSN: 2012-578X.

Adeyemo GO, Oni OR, Longe OG. Effect of dietary biscuit waste on performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Food Sci. Qual. Manage.; 2013. ISSN: 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557.
Available at: www.iiste.org

Tooling B, Londok JJMR, Regard MN. The effect of length of feeding and level of crude fibre carcass quality and serum cholesterol of broiler chicken. Proceeding the 4th International Seminar, Manado: Sam Ratulangi University; 2015.

Adeyemo GO, Akanmu AM. Effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaves supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Int’l J. Curr. Res. 2012;4(12):268-271.

Benyi K, Acheampong-Boateng O, Norris D, Ligaraba TJ. Response of Ross 308 and Hubbard broiler chickens to feed removal for different durations during the day. Trop. Anim. Health and Prod. 2010;42:1421-1426.

Zhan XA, Wang M, Ren H, Zhao RQ, Li JX, Tan ZL. Effect of early feed restriction on metabolic programming and compensatory growth in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 2007;86:654- 660.