Main Article Content
The infection or inflammation of the mammary gland represents a dominant pathology in dairy cattle. The aim of this work was to study in vitro the antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some plants on bacteria which were isolated from mammary milk. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, Artimisia herba alba and Myrtus communis were obtained by hydro distillation of the aerial part. They were tested on strains of staphylococci that were multi-resistant to antibiotics which are isolated from mammary milk. The essential oils contents are between a low value of 0.3% for Myrtus communis and a relatively high value of 2.5% for Thymus vulgaris. The different essential oils tested revealed interesting antimicrobial activities. The strongest antibacterial activity was observed for the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris (9-52 mm), while the oils of Rosmarinus oficinalis, Artimisia herba alba and Myrtus communis showed moderate antimicrobial activities (9-19.5 mm). We also determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the MIC / MBC ratio of Thymus vulgaris on the three multi-resistant strains of staphylococci; it turned out that MIC ranged between 0.01 and 0.016 µg / ml and MBC ranged between 0.021 and 0.078 µg / ml. In the conclusion, Thymus vulgar is revealed a bactericidal effect on the strains tested.
Saidi R, Mimoune N, Baazizi R, Benaissa MH, Khelef D, Kaidi R. A study of ethno-veterinary medicinal plants and in vitro antimicrobial activities against bovine mastitis isolated bacterial pathogens in Algeria. Bulletin UASVM Veterinary Medicine. 2019a;76(2).
Saidi R, Mimoune N, Benaissa MH, Baazizi R, Khelef D, Kaidi R. Evaluation of the resistance to antibiotics of bacteria responsible for mastitis in cows in Southern Algeria. Algerian Journal of Arid Regions. 2019c;13(2):84–94.
Saidi R, Mimoune N, Benaissa MH, Baazizi R, Khelef D, Bahouh MW, Kaidi R. Effectiveness of some sanitary measures on the survival of mastitis: The point on pre and post soak. Algerian Journal of Arid Regions. 2020;14(1):124–130.
Gentilini E, Denamiel G, Liorente P. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Argentina. J. Dairy Sci. 2000;83:1224-1227.
Saidi R, Mimoune N, Baazizi R, Benaissa MH, Khelef D, Kaidi R. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Algeria. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2019b;6(2):231–235.
Mubarak M, Doss A, Dhanabalan R, Venkataswany R. Activity of some selected medecinal plant extracts against bovine mastitis pathogens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2011;10(6):738-741.
Goncalves FA, Andrade Neto M, Bezerra JN, Macrae A, Sousa OV, Fonteless-Filho AA, Vieira RH. Antibacterial activity of Guava, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. Revue Institut Medecine Tropicale de Sao Paulo. 2008;50(11-15):689/5000.
Tufecki E, Casagrande ZA, Lindauer SJ, Fowler CE, Williams KT. Effectiveness of an essential oil mouthrinse in improving oral health in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthodonty. 2008; 78:294-298.
Saidi R, Khelef D, Kaidi R. Evaluation of an early detection test for subclinical mastitis in cows. Review of livestock and veterinary medicine of tropical countries. 2010;63(3-4):57- 61.
Paul S. Larousse encyclopédie des plantes médicinales, identification, préparations, soins. Larousse-Bordas (Ed.). 21 Rue de Montparnasse 75283. Paris. France. 2001;2-03-560252-1.
Baba Aissa F. Encyclopédie des plantes utiles Flore d’Algérie et du Maghreb. EDAS Librairie moderne Rouiba. 2000; 368.
Mahomed IM, Ojewole JA. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract. Phytother. Res. 2004;18(12);982-9.
European pharmacopoeia. Strasbourg. (3éme éd.). France: Council of Europe. 1996;121-122.
Markovic JA, Ruegg PL. Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from dairy cow milk samples submitted for bacterial culture: 8905 samples (1994-2001). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2003; 222:1582-1589.
Jacob M, Pellecuer J, Tomei R. Regional center for the study and development of plants for pharmaceutical use. Rivista Italiana E.P.P.O.S. 1979;11:26-30.
Tharib S, Gnan O, Veitch G. Antimicrobial activity of compounds from Artemisia campestris. J. Food. Prot. 1983;46:681-685.
Durmaz H, Sagun E, Tarakci Z, Ozgokce F. Antibacterial activities of Allium vineale, Chaerophyllum macropodum and Prangos ferulacea. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5:1795-1798.
Ponce A, Fritz R, DelVall C, Roura S. Antibacterial activty of essential oils on the native microflora of organic Swiss chard. Lebensmittel Wissen-schaft und Technologic. 2003;36:679-684.
Drugeon H, Legallou F, Caillon J. Methods for studying bactericidal activity Bactericidal. Theoretical and therapeutic aspects. Paris. 1991;113-126.
Macheix J, Fleuriet A, German C Plant phenolic compounds an example of secondary metabolites of economic importance. Ed Presse polytechniques et universités romandes. Rouanda. 2005;192.
Lahlou M. Methods to study the phytochemistry and bioactivity of essential oils. Phytother. Res. 2004; 18:435-448.
Sérieys F. Antibiogramme et traitement des mammites. Bulletin GTV. 2006;33:36-38.
Caurvalin P, Flandrois J, Goldstein F, Philippon A, Sirot J. The automated antibiogram. mpc-vigt. Paris. 1988;98.
Salido S, Valenzuela LR, Altarejos J, Nogueras M, Sanchez A, Cano E. Composition and infraspecific variability of Artemisia herba-alba from southern Spain. Biochem. Syst. School. 2004;32:265-277.
Ayadi S, Jerribi C, Abderrabba M. Extraction and study of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis, gathered in three different regions of Tunisia, Journal of the Algerian Society of Chemistry. J. Soc. Alger. Chim. 2011; 33:28.
Bendimerad A. Composition and antibacterial activity of Pseudocytisus (Salisb). Essential oil from Algeria. Journal of Agricultural and food Chemistry. 2005;53:2947-2952.
Marzouk B, Ben Hadj Fredj M, Mastouri M, Boukef K, Marzouk Z. Chemical composition and antimicro-bial activity of essential oils from Tunisian Mentha pulegium L. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment. 2008;6:78-82.
Ennajar M, Bouajila J, Lebrihi A, Mathieu Arlette S, Manef A. The influence of organ, season and drying method on chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Juniperus phoenicea L. Essential oils. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture. 2009;90:462-470.
Medini H, Elaissi A, Khoujad F, Chemli R, Harzallah-Skhiri F. Seasonal and geographical influences on the chemical composition of Juniperus phoenicea L. essential oil leaves from the northern Tunisia. Chemistry and Biodiversity. 2009;6: 1378-1387.
Sefidkon F, Jalili A, Mirhaji T. Essential oil composition of three Artemisia spp. from Iran Flavour Fragr. 2001;17(2):150-152.
Billerbek V. Essential oils and bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Pharma-cognosy Phytotherapy. 2007;5:249-253.
Conner DE. Naturally occurrring compounds. In: Antimicrobials in Food. Marcel Dekker publishing company. New York. 1993;115.
Benikhlef A. Appearing between essential oils and their antibacterial effects on Rosmarinus officinalis from the Bechar and Ouargla region. Master Thesis Agronomy. 2014;27:15-20.
Frouhat Z, Lahcini B. Biological control with essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. academic master thesis. Kasdi Merbah University. Ouargla. 2013;49:35.
Skocibusic M, Bezic N, Dunkic V. Phytochimical composition and antibacterienne activeties of essential oil from Subbspicat vis. Grow incro Tia Food Chem. 2006;96:20-28.
Mighri H. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia herba alba essential oil cultivated in Tunisian arid zone Full paper. Thesis C. R. Chemistry. 2010;389:380-386.
Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, phyto-chemistry, medicinal plants. 3rd ed. Paris: Tec and Doc Lavoisier. 1999; 1120:483-1118.
Dansereau S. Essential oils against mastitis. Information day in organic farming, steustache. Veterinarian and homeopath conference of February 2002;5:68.
Friedman A. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteric. Journal of Food Protection. 2002;65(10):1545-1560.
Burt S. Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods- A review. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2004;94:223-253.
Oussalah F. Mechanism of action of Spanish oregano, Chinese cinamon, and savory essential oils against cell membranes and walls of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Listeria monocytogene. Journal of Food Protection. 2007;6(5):1046-1055.
Allegrini J, Simmeon B, Billot A. Emulsions of essential oils, manufacture and application in microbiology. Works of the Montpellier Pharmacy Society. 1973;33:73-86.
Moulay S, Elabed A, Elaabedy A, Elabed S, Abdellah F, Iraquiand M, Ibnsouda K. Characterization and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Thymus vulgaris cultivated in morocco (taounate) against ten bacteria. Regional University Center of Interface, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University. B. P. 2015;4(5): 314-325.
Benabed K. Chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from some plants in the Lamiaceae family. Magister thesis. Amar Telidji University. Laghouat. 2011; 67:44.
Alessandra F, Danila S, Diogo F, Mariadas G, Hilsdorf R. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus and Laurus nobilis against five important food borne pathogens. Ciênc. Tecnol. Food. Campinas. 2012 ;32(1):167-172.
Aligiannis N, Kalpotzakis E, Mitaku S, Chinou I. Composition and antibacterial activity of the essentiel oils of two Origanum species. J Agric. Food. chem. 2001;40:4168-70.
Oussou KR, Yolou S, Boti JB, Guessennd KN, Kanko C, Ahibo C, Casanova J. Chemical study and anti-diarrheal activity of essential oils from two aromatic plants of the Ivorian pharmacopoeia. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2008;24:94-103.
Moroh JL, Bahi C, Dje K, Loukou Y, Guede F. Study of the antibacterial activity of the acetatic extract (ACE) of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milneredheat (Rubiaceae) on the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli strains. Bulletin of the Royal Society of Sciences of Liège. 2008;44-61.