Pt. C. L. S. Government College, Karnal, Haryana, India.


Pt. C. L. S. Government College, Karnal, Haryana, India.


Pt. C. L. S. Government College, Karnal, Haryana, India.


B. M. University, Rohtak, India.


Pt. C. L. S. Government College, Karnal, Haryana, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Sustainable agriculture is need of era to maintain productivity and environment quality for farmers and society. The increased industrialization and urbanization are mainly responsible for increased air pollution. Pollutants can already lead to serious reduction of crop growth and yield. Sulphur compounds are the most harmful pollutants; the prime one is Sulphur dioxide (SO2). At pre-flowering stages, the growth responses of field-grown marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) plants to SO2 (320g/m3, 667g/m3, 1334g/m3) stress were investigated. Significant decrease in root and shoot length, leaf area, leaf number and chlorophyll content was observed with increased SO2 concentration. Compared with control, fumigation of SO2 at lower concentration also showed significant changes in plant attributes. SO2 fumigation reduces plant growth and affects negatively various morphological and physiological attributes. The results clearly showed that increasing day to day pollution causes the adverse effect on human food and economic viability of farm operations.

Keywords: Fumigation, SO2, pollution, Calendula officinalis L.

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