EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT COOKING PROCESSES ON BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY AND ARSENIC IN EXPOSED AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822)

Main Article Content

OLADAPO TITUS OKAREH
MARY MOJIRADE ADETOBA
JACOB KEHINDE AKINTUNDE
SELIM ADEWALE ALARAPE
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1685-2139

Abstract

Fish consumption is one of the major routes of human exposure to environmental contaminants. This study was conducted to assess alternative ways of reducing the bioavailability of mercury and arsenic in Clarias gariepinus and to evaluate ameliorating effects of cooking processes (boiling, frying, and roasting) on the bioavailability of these metals in exposed Catfish. Thirty-six Clarias gariepinus (3 months; 100g-150g; 10-15cm length) were randomly divided into three groups (n=12). 0.2mg/L of mercury chloride and 20µg/l were used as test salts for Mercury (group A) and Arsenic (group B) respectively while Group C was the control. Exposed fish were subjected to various cooking processes on a 7 days interval basis for four consecutive weeks after which they were digested before analysis. The levels of mercury and arsenic in fish samples were determined using titrimetric methods and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) respectively and the data were analyzed using analysis of variance and the least significant difference (LSD) was accepted at p=.05. A statistically significant difference (p=.05) was observed as a reduction in the mercury level of the processed fish across the weeks as compared with the raw sample and in this order:  raw>roasted>fried>boiled.  For arsenic-treated fishes, there was no statistically significant difference (p=.05) across the weeks, but an increase in concentration was observed in processed samples as compared with raw samples for the four weeks and in this order: raw<roasted<fried<boiled. None of the cooking procedures has glaring reduction effects on both Mercury and Arsenic. The liver also recorded the highest concentration of both Mercury and Arsenic followed by gills and Muscle of Catfish samples. Since this study and others alike have established little effects of cooking procedures on heavy metals in food, further studies need to be conducted using combined cooking methods at different conditions designed at mitigating the effects of heavy metals in food.

Keywords:
Cooking processes, Clarias gariepinus, bio-availability, mercury, arsenic, titrimetric methods, atomic absorption spectrophotometer

Article Details

How to Cite
OKAREH, O. T., ADETOBA, M. M., AKINTUNDE, J. K., & ALARAPE, S. A. (2021). EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT COOKING PROCESSES ON BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY AND ARSENIC IN EXPOSED AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822). BIONATURE, 41(1), 39-49. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/BN/article/view/1153
Section
Original Research Article

References

Biegalski S, Landsberger S. An evaluation of atmospheric deposition of trace elements into the Great Lakes. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1999; 71-72:247–256.

Cook AG, Weinstein P, Centeno JA. Health effects of natural dust: Role of trace elements and compounds. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2005;103:1–15.

Massadeh A, Al-Momani F, Elbetieha A. Assessment of heavy metals concentrations in soil samples from the vicinity of busy roads: Influence on Drosophila melanogaster life cycle. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2007;122: 1–8.

Khair MH. Toxicity and accumulation of copper in Nannochloropsisoculata (Eustigmatophycea, Heterokonta). World Applied Sciences. 2009;6(3): 376-384.

Oliver MA. Soil and human health: A review. European Journal of Soil Science. 1997;48:573-592.

Amiard JC, Amiard-Triquet C, Charbonnier L, Mesnil A, Rainbow PS, Wang WX. Bioaccessibility of essential and non-essential metals in commercial shellfish from Western Europe and Asia. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008;46:2010–2022.

Zhang L, Wong MH. Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts. EnViron. Int. 2007;33:108–121.

Chang L (2007) Toxicology of Metals; CRC Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL, 1996.

Barkay T, Poulain AJ. Mercury (micro) biogeochemistry in polar environments. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 2007;59(2):232–41.

Bensefa-Colas L, Andujar P, Descatha A. [Mercury poisoning]. La Revue de médecine interne / fondée ... par la Société nationale francaise de médecine interne. 2011;32(7): 416–24.

Lièvremont D, Bertin PN, Lett MC. Arsenic in contaminated waters: biogeochemical cycle, microbial metabolism, and biotreatment processes. Biochimie. 2009;91(10): 1229–37.

Hughes MF, Barbara DB, Yu Chen A, Lewis S, David JT. Arsenic exposure and toxicology: A historical perspective. Toxicological Sciences: an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2011;123(2):305– 32.

Chan HM, Egeland GM. Fish Consumption, Mercury Exposure, and Heart Diseases. Nutrition Reviews. 2004;62(2):68–72.

Evers DC, Savoy LJD, Christopher RY, David E, Hanson W, Taylor KM, Siegel LS, Cooley JH, Bank MS, Major A, Munney K, Mower BF, Vogel HS, Schoch N, Pokras M, Goodale MW, Fair J. Adverse effects from environmental mercury loads on breeding common loons. Ecotoxicology (London, England). 2008;17(2):69–81.

Khansari FE, Abdollahi M. Heavy metals content of canned tuna fish. Food Chemistry. 2005;93:293–296.

Tenyang N, Hilaire MW, Bernard T, Nand Hrodrik TF, Félicité TSM, Pierre V, Michel L. Lipid Oxidation of Catfish (Arius maculatus) after Cooking and Smoking by Different Methods Applied in Cameroon. 2013;176–187.

Olaifa FE, Olaifa AK, Adelaja AA, Owolabi AG. Heavy Metal Contamination Of Clarias Gariepinus From A Lake And Fish Farm In Ibadan, Nigeria. Dept. of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Dept. of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2004;7:145- 148. ISSN: 1119 – 5096.

Inobeme A, Ajai AI, Eziukwu C, Obigwa PA, Okonkwo S, Ekwoba LM. Effect of Cooking Methods on Heavy Metals Content of Food. Journal of Xidian University. 2020;14(8):704-714.

Devesa VM, Luz Macho M, Jalon I, Urieta O, Munoz MA, Suner F, Lopez D, Velez RM. Arsenic in cooked seafood products: A study on the effect of cooking on total and inorganic arsenic contents. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001;49:4132-4140.

Ziarati P, Rabizadeh H, Mousavi Z, Asgarpanah J, Azariun A. The Effect of cooking method in Potassium, Lead and Cadmium Contents in Commonly Consumed packaged mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in Iran. Int J. Farming and Allied Sci. 2013;2:728-733.

Gremiachikh VA, Tomilina II, Komov VT. Impact of cooking on the content of fish mercury. Gig. Sanit. 2007;6: 64–67.

Atta M, El-Sebaie L, Noaman M, Kassab H. The effect of cooking on the content of heavy metals in fish (Tilapia nilotica). Food Chemistry. 1997;58(1):1-4.

Ersoy B, Yanar Y, Küçükgülmez A, Çelik M. Effects of four cooking methods on the heavy metal concentrations of the sea bass fillets (Dicentrarchus labrax Linne, 1785). Food Chem. 2006;99.

748–751.Jorhem L, Engman J, Sundstrom B, Thim AM. Trace elements in crayfish: Regional differences and changes induced by cooking. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1994;26:137-142.

D'iaz OP, Leyton I, Munoz O, Nunez N, Devesa V, Suner MA, Velez D, Montoro R. Contribution of water, bread and vegetables (raw and cooked) to dietary intake of inorganic arsenic in a rural village of Northern Chile. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004; 52:1773-1779.

Perello G, Marti-Cid R, Llobet JM, Domingo JL. Effects of Various Cooking Processes on the Concentrations of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead in Foods, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;56(23):11262-9.

Kalogeropoulos N, Andrikopoulos NK, Hassapidou M. Dietary evaluation of Mediterranean fish and molluscs pan-fried in virgin olive oil, Journal of the Sience of Food and Agriculture. 2004;84, 1750-1758.

Cabañero AI, Madrid Y, Cámara C. Selenium and Mercury Bioaccessibility in Fish Samples: an in Vitro Digestion Method, Analytica Chimica Acta. 2004;526(1):51-61.

Benson NU, et al. Mercury accumulation in fishes from tropical aquatic ecosystems in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. 2007;781–785. Akueshi, 2003.

Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Lawrence J. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003; 23:e20.

Eneji IS, Annune PA. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Fish (Tilapia Zilli and Clarias Gariepinus) Organs From River Benue, North – Central Nigeria. (2011), 12(1).

Ekeanyanwu CR, Ogbuinyi CA, Etienajirhevwe OF. Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and Water from Okumeshi River in Delta State, Nigeria. Biochemistry Unit, Department of Chemical Sciences, Novena University, Ogume, Nigeria Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2010;Vol.3 No.3

Clarkson TW. The Three Modern Faces of Mercury. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002;110(s1): 11–23.