Asian Research Journal of Current Science https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS <p><strong>Asian Research Journal of Current Science</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers in all areas of science, technology, and medical research. This is a multidisciplinary scientific journal.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results.&nbsp;</p> Global Press Hub en-US Asian Research Journal of Current Science Effects of Double-Walled Adobe Storage Structure on Moisture and Dry Matter of Cassava Roots https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS/article/view/1923 <p>Millions of people in about 105 nations around the world including Nigeria rely on cassava as a major staple crop to supply their nutritional starch demands. Cassava roots are an important source of food and feed, as well as biofuel, biodegradable plastic manufacturing, and starch production. Fresh cassava roots are scarcely available despite their numerous uses. Because of a phenomenon known as Postharvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD), cassava roots have a short shelf life. The scope of this study is confined to the construction of a double-walled <em>adobe</em> structure suitable for storing cassava roots (TME 419), the determination of weight loss of stored samples, and the determination of dry matter and moisture content in sampled roots using the oven-drying method. A novel storage system is used in an effort to increase the shelf life of cassava roots by creating a microclimate in the structure. Two storage structures (AD1 and AD2) were erected for this experiment. <em>Adobe</em> bricks with a 0.15 m thickness and a 0.20 m wall separation make up the first building designated AD1. It is a cylindrical, double-wall construction. Straw that is sourced locally is used to construct the control, the second storage building. This study is aimed at evaluating the performance of a double-wall adobe structure for storage in a bid to prolong the shelf life of stored cassava roots. Over the course of 10 weeks, from November to February, samples were stored in each storage unit. Temperature, relative humidity, and sample mass were among the variables that were tracked throughout the storage period. The mass of individual samples were measured once per week over the 10 week storage period. The average dry matter and moisture content percentage for samples stored in AD1 was found to be 43.83% and 56.17% respectively. Likewise, the average dry matter and moisture content percentage for samples stored in AD2 47.88% and 52.12% respectively. The study showed that the double-wall adobe storage system demonstrated higher efficiency than the control, with an average mass loss of 25.64% as opposed to 42.95% over the storage period.</p> Bawa-Boyi E. U. Idemudia G. O. Jacob A. Wansah J. F. John J.J. Copyright (c) 2024 © Copyright Global Press Hub. All rights reserved. 2024-01-03 2024-01-03 1 12 Comparative Studies on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane Foams Derived from Bio-Based Polyols https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS/article/view/1926 <p>The production of bio-based polyurethane foam (PUF) is a difficult process that necessitates substantial research. This paper describes the synthesis of PUFs from polyol derived from petroleum, castor oil, and shea butter fat. Polyurethane foams were produced in a single step using similar compositions of polyols, surfactant, catalyst, and isocyanate. The different polyol sources had an impact on the physico-mechanical properties of petroleum castor oil polyurethane foam (PPF), castor oil polyurethane foam (COPF), and Shea butter fat polyurethane foam (SBFPUF). In terms of isocyanate-water reaction and swelling time, SBFPF outperforms COPF in cream and gel time. SBPF absorbed more water and had a larger apparent density than COPE. The high water absorption values in this study imply heavily cross-linked and complex foam formations with low impermeability. SBPF has greater tensile and compression strengths than COPF; however, COPF has better oil absorption and wear/abrasion resistance than SBPF. Castor oil-derived polyols had a greater impact on the oil absorption of polyurethane foams (PUFs) than SBF-polyols. Castor oil and SBF polyols, on the other hand, had comparable wear and abrasion effects. The increased compressive and tensile strengths of the foam demonstrate its load-bearing capability. The different sources of the polyols had a significant impact on the PUF alterations. Insulation, packaging, refrigeration, and other materials use castor oil and SBF polyurethane foams (PUFs). These foams' physico-mechanical properties make them appropriate for a variety of applications.</p> Eucharia Agborma Emeka-Chioke Kingsley John Orie Okechukwu Paul Nsude Prisca Ifeoma Udeozo Simon Onyia Copyright (c) 2024 © Copyright Global Press Hub. All rights reserved. 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 13 22 Mathematical Analysis of Optimal Control of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Co-infection with Tuberculosis (TB) https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS/article/view/1927 <p>The co-occurrence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant global health challenge, affecting an estimated 1.4 million individuals worldwide. The synergistic progression of these diseases contributes to elevated morbidity and mortality rates. Recognizing the substantial public health burden they impose, this study introduces fifteen (15) compartmental models to discern optimal control strategies for treating HIV-TB co-infection. Initial consideration is given to sub-models for HIV and TB individually, followed by the comprehensive HIV-TB co-infection model. The research quantitatively analyzes the existence and uniqueness of HIV and TB models, examining the stability of equilibrium points for disease-free and endemic states. The Basic Reproduction Number (R<sub>0</sub>) is computed using the Next Generation Matrix method. Optimal control strategies are evaluated to determine the preferred sequence for treating co-infection. Employing MAPLE software with the differential transformation method, numerical simulations underscore the importance of epidemiological features in the dynamic spread of HIV-TB co-infection. The results emphasize the efficacy of simultaneous treatment for both diseases, coupled with immune system support, compared to sequential treatment of one disease.</p> Olopade Isaac Adesola Mohammed Idayat Temilade Philemon Musa Emmanuel Ajao Saheed Oladele Adeniran Gbenga Adeyemi Sagoniyi Sunday Adewale Sunday Olumuyiwa Copyright (c) 2024 © Copyright Global Press Hub. All rights reserved. 2024-01-11 2024-01-11 23 53 Mathematical Modelling and Analyzing the Dynamics of Condom Efficacy and Compliance in the Spread of HIV/AIDS https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS/article/view/1944 <p>The study involves a mathematical analysis of condom efficacy and compliance in the transmission of HIV/AIDS. It explores how condom use impacts the prevention of HIV/AIDS and considers other epidemiological factors affecting the progression from HIV to full-blown AIDS. The model's existence and uniqueness of solution are established, with a focus on the basic reproduction number, representing the average new infections caused by an infected individual. The analysis reveals that the disease-free equilibrium is stable when the basic reproduction number is below unity i.e., but becomes endemic otherwise, i.e.. Sensitivity analysis indicates parameters with positive values increase the reproduction number, emphasizing that the effective contact rate should not exceed 0.22 to avoid the endemic stage. Numerical simulations using MAPLE 18 software demonstrate that condom compliance reduces the dynamic spread of HIV, and targeted immunity boost controls the viral load.</p> Olopade Isaac Adesola Sangoniyi Sunday Oloruntoyin Philemon Musa Emmanuel Mohammed Idayat Temilade Adeniran Gbenga Adeyemi Ajao Saheed Oladele Aishah Umar Mamman Adamu Abdul Kareem Copyright (c) 2024 © Copyright Global Press Hub. All rights reserved. 2024-02-03 2024-02-03 54 65 Effects of Quality Control Practice on Performance of Building Construction Projects in Borama District, Somaliland https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS/article/view/1963 <p>The performance of building construction projects is highly affected by many factors. In Borama, 70% of construction projects does not meet the expected project cost, time, and scope. Therefore, this study aimed and investigated the effect of quality control practices on the performance of building construction projects in Borama District Somaliland. The study used a cross-sectional survey design with a sample of 92 workers in the 17 construction companies in the Borama district. The study uses a questionnaire as a data collection method. The result show that, there is no quality control standard/code in Somaliland due to these projects are adopting a foreign building code, but the foreign codes are not considering the Somaliland weather conditions, working environment and culture. And the study concluded that, current quality management (R = 0.568, p = 0.000 &lt; a = 0.05), supervision of work (R = 0.671, p = 0.000 &lt; a = 0.05), and construction quality (R = 0. 0.358, p = 0.001 &lt; a - 0.05) model show that a statistical significance on the performance of building construction projects in Borama district. Secondly, the study found a significant positive correlation between quality control management on performance building construction projects construction companies. This shows that, if current quality management is practiced well, the performance of the building construction projects are improved.</p> Abdifatah O. Nour Werku Koshe Hareru Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-11 2024-03-11 66 73 Heat Induced Changes in Milk and Traditional Milk Products https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS/article/view/1968 <p>Milk is subjected to various heat treatments from mild to severe conditions, with primary objective to enhance the product shelf life and to ensure the food safety. Study on heat induced changes to milk will have significant knowledge on nutritional aspects of the milk and some dairy processing techniques can be altered to reduces the negative impact of heating on milk and milk products. Several unidentifiable milk residues were found while processing and their effect on milk digestibility was not yet studied in detail. As infant milk formula is constituted with concentrated of milk protein and milk bioactive substance, insights on changes to these components would be inevitable. Thermally induced changes also greatly affect the rheological and sensory properties of dairy products. Functional properties of protein such as solubility, emulsion formation and foaming capacity are influenced by heating. Heating conditions leaves behind certain reversible and irreversible physio-chemical changes to milk constituents. This chapter emphasis the heat induced changes in milk constituents milk protein, fat, lactose and salts in an elaborate manner; since studies on product chemistry was focused, changes in bioactive compounds were not given importance. Concern was extended to allergenicity, cross-linking and digestibility of milk constituent wherever possible.</p> Dharani Muthusamy Indu Balakrishnan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 74 85