Genetic Components and Nature of Gene Action in Some New Hybrids of Grain Sorghum under Drought Conditions

Main Article Content

M. E. M. El- Sagheer
Bahaa A. Zarea

Abstract

This investigation was carried out to estimate the combining ability, genetic components and the nature of gene action using four sorghum lines [Cytoplasmic-Genetic Male Sterile (CGMS) Lines], three males (testers) and their 12 top crosses (developed through line x tester mating design) under 2 irrigation treatments (environments). Highly significant differences were found among environments, genotypes (parents and crosses), lines and line x tester interactions for all studied traits from combined data in both seasons (2018 and 2019). Line x tester x environment (L x T x E) interactions were also significant for all studied traits in both seasons except for, number of green leaves in 2018 season, suggesting that the top crosses between the lines and the testers differed from environment to another. The best top crosses were (L1xT3, L2xT3, L3xT3 and L4xT3) which significantly out-yielded the crosses means, which were also tolerant to drought (low DSI values). In this respect, four top crosses (L1xT3, L2xT3, L3x T3 and L4xT3) were the most promising hybrids with the maximum desirable heterotic values for all studied traits over mid and better parents in both seasons. One line (L2) exhibited positive highly significant GCA effect toward 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant in both seasons, and one tester (T3) was considered to be excellent general combiner for plant height, No. of green leaves and out-yielding the testers mean in both seasons. The promising top crosses which showed excellent desirable SCA effects were obtained from (good x good), (good x poor), (poor x good) and (poor x poor) general combiners, indicating that both additive and non-additive gene actions played an important role in the expression of the studied traits. The magnitudes of additive genetic variances (σ2A) were larger than those of non-additive ones (σ2D) for all traits in both seasons, indicating that the additive gene action were pronounced in the inheritance of these traits. The magnitudes of variances σ2A x E interaction were greater than those of σ2D x E ones for all studied traits in both seasons, indicating that additive variance was more affected by the drought environment conditions than non-additive ones. The result of heritability estimates presented additional evidences about predominance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of the studied traits. For that, crossing programme could be used for producing supper promising grain sorghum hybrids which can facing the water deficient conditions in the upcoming climatic changes scenario.

Keywords:
Grain sorghum, genetic components, gene actions, heritability

Article Details

How to Cite
Sagheer, M. E. M. E.-, & Zarea, B. A. (2020). Genetic Components and Nature of Gene Action in Some New Hybrids of Grain Sorghum under Drought Conditions. Asian Research Journal of Current Science, 2(1), 68-79. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS/article/view/855
Section
Original Research Article

References

Doggett H. Sorghum. 2nd Ed., Longman Group Limited, United Kingdom. 1988;40.

Reddy BVS, Ramaiah B, Kumar AA, Reddy PS. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research. 2007;3(1):1-4.

FAO; 2017.

Available:http://appst.Fao.Org/Servlet/XteServelet.Jrun

Jain SK, Patel PR. Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Journal of Plant Breeding. 2014;5(2):152-157.

Menezes CB, Saldanha DC, Santos CV, Andrade LC, Mingote Júlio MP, Portugal AF, Tardin FD. Evaluation of grain yield in sorghum hybrids under water stress. Genetics and Molecular Research. 2015;14(4):12675-12683.

Verma MM, Kumar J. Breeding for yield in self-pollinators an introspection and reorientation. Crop Improv. 1974;1(1,2):15-31.

Joshi AB. Breeding methodology for autogamous crops. Indian J. Genet. 1979;39(3):567-578.

Sprague GF, Tatum LA. General vs. specific combining ability in single crosses of corn. J. Amer. Soc. Agron. 1942;34:923-932.

Munamava M, Riddoch I. Response of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties to soil moisture stress at different developmental stages. South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 2013;18(2):75-79.

Padmashree N, Sridhar K, Kajjidoni ST. Combining ability studies in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for yield and quality parameters. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 2014;27(4):449-453.

Jadhav RR, Deshmukh DT. Heterosis and combining ability studies in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) over the environments. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2017;6(10):3058-3064.

Qadir Masood, Amir Bibi, Muhammad H. N. Tahir, Muhammad Saleem, Hafeez A. Sadaqat. Screening of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) genotypes under various levels of drought stress. Maydica Electronic Publication, 60 ~ M35; 2015.

Erin Puspita Rini, Trikoesoemaningtyas, Desta Wirnas, Didy Sopandie, Tesfaye T. Tesso. Heterosis of sorghum hybrid developed from local and introduced lines. Int. J. Agro. Agri. R. 2016;8(3):1-9.

Chikuta Sally, Thomas Odong, Fred Kabi, Patrick Rubaihayo. Combining ability and heterosis of selected grain and forage dual purpose sorghum genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(2). ISSN: 1916-9752, E-ISSN: 1916-9760.

Falconer DS, Mackay TFC. Quantitative genetics (4th Ed., p. 464). Longman Group Limited, UK; 1996.

Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 1998.

Fischer RA, Maurer R. Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. I. Grain yield response. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 1978;29:897-912.

Gomez KA, Gomez AA. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 2nd Ed.; 1984.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH. Principles and procedures of statistics. Mc Grow- Hill Book Co., Inc., New York; 1980.

Singh PK, Chaudhary BD. Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis. Kalyani Publishers. New Delihi, 3rd Ed. 1985;39-68.

Adams CB, Erickson JE. Yield enhancement by short-term imposition of severe water deficit in the vegetative growth stage of grain sorghum. J Agro Crop Sci. 2017;203:309-314.

El-Sherbeny GAR, Khaled AGA, Hovney MRA, Bahaa A. Zarea. Combining ability and gene action using Line by tester analysis on some new hybrids of grain sorghum under drought conditions. PKV Res. J. 2019;49(1):118-129.

Zarea A. Bahaa, Galal A. R. El-Sherbeny, Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled. Identification of morphological and molecular markers in some grain sorghum genotypes under drought conditions. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Agric. Sohag Univ., Egypt; 2019.

Justin Ringo, Agustino Onkware, Mary Mgonja, Santosh Deshpande, Abhishek Rathore, Emmarold Mneney, Samuel Gudu. Heterosis for yield and its components in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) hybrids in dry lands and sub-humid environments of East Africa. AJCS. 2015;9(1):9-13.

Taye T. Mindaye, Emma S. Mace, Ian D. Godwin, David R. Jordan. Heterosis in locally adapted sorghum genotypes and potential of hybrids for increased productivity in contrasting environments in Ethiopia. The Crop Journal. 2016;4:479-489.

Kale BH, Desai RT. Gene action studies over different environments in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Adv. Res. J. Crop Improv. 2016;7(1):116-120.

DOI: 10.15740/HAS/ARJCI/7.1/116-120