Methoxychlor Hepatotoxicity and Trials of Camel Milk Restoration

Main Article Content

Eman E. Elsharkawy
Eman M. Shaker
Neveen A. El-Nisr
Nahed, M. Wahba

Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the restoration effect of camel's milk against methoxychlor induced liver toxicity. The unique characters of camel’s milk make it used extensively in the field of medicine as anti-microbial, anti-diabetic and as a hepatoprotective agent. Methoxychlor is an environmental contaminant, which is widely used as a pesticide in many countries, has been shown to induce hepatotoxicity in rat. MXC caused a significant increase in serum transaminases (AST and ALT), and alkaline phosphatase, while MXC induced a significant reduction in total protein and albumin levels. MXC significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation and markedly enhanced glutathione in liver homogenate. Pathological damages as degeneration and coagulative necrosis of the hepatocytes were established in liver. Newly formed bile ducteules denotes neoplastic changes in the portal tract with abnormal mitotic pattern were associated with the long term exposure. The present study concluded that camel milk treatment may play a protective role against methoxychlor -induced liver damage in rats.

Keywords:
Hepatotoxicity, methoxychlor, AST, ALT, oxidative stress, camel milk.

Article Details

How to Cite
Elsharkawy, E. E., Shaker, E. M., El-Nisr, N. A., & Wahba, N. M. (2021). Methoxychlor Hepatotoxicity and Trials of Camel Milk Restoration. Asian Research Journal of Current Science, 3(1), 24-35. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ARJOCS/article/view/1041
Section
Original Research Article

References

Yousef MI. Aluminium-induced changes in hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid. Toxicology. 2004;199(1):47-57.

Darwish HA, Abd Raboh NR, Mahdy A. Camel’s milk alleviates alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2012;50(5):1377-1383.

MS Gorban A, Izzeldin OM. Fatty acids and lipids of camel milk and colostrum. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2001;52(3):283-287.

FitzGerald RJ, Meisel H. Milk protein-derived peptide inhibitors of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme. British Journal of Nutrition. 2000;84(S1):33-37.

Korhonen H, Pihlanto A. Food-derived bioactive peptides-opportunities for designing future foods. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2003;9(16):1297-1308.

Ibrahim ZS, Alkafafy M, Soliman MM, Ahmed MM.. Molecular mechanism of hepato-renal protection of camel milk against oxidative stress-perturbations. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2016;23(1):53-63.

Mirmiran P, Ejtahed HS, Angoorani P, Eslami F, Azizi F. Camel milk has beneficial effects on diabetes mellitus: A systematic review. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2017; 15(2).

Bulger WH, Temple JE, Kupfer D. Covalent binding of [14C] methoxychlor metabolite (s) to rat liver microsomal components. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1983;68(3):367-374.

EL Nisr NA, El-Sharkawy EE, Abd Ellah MR, Elsherif W, Kames GF, Sayed SM, Wahba NM, Abdel-Hafeez MM, Aamer AA, Abdel MFM. Ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor induced hepato renal dysfunction. Basic Research Journal. 2013; 1:07-16.

Bulger WH, Kupfer DAVID. Characteristics of monooxygenase-mediated covalent binding of methoxychlor in human and rat liver microsomes. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 1989;17(5):487-494.

Stresser DM, Kupfer D. Human cytochrome P450–catalyzed conversion of the proestrogenic pesticide methoxychlor into an estrogen: Role of CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 in O-Demethylation. Drug Metabolism and disposition. 1998;26(9): 868-874.

Bondy SC, Naderi S. Contribution of hepatic cytochrome P450 systems to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Biochemical Pharmacology. 1994;48(1): 155-159.

Ochsendorf FR. Infections in the male genital tract and reactive oxygen species. Human Reproduction Update. 1999;5(5): 399-420.

Pelicano H, Feng L, Zhou Y, Carew JS, Hileman EO, Plunkett W, Keating MJ, Huang P. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration a novel strategy to enhance drug-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by a reactive oxygen species-mediated mechanism. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003;278(39):37832-37839.

Sujatha R, Chitra KC, Latchoumycandane, C, Mathur PP. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats. Asian Journal of Andrology. 2001;3(2):135-138.

Latchoumycandane C, Mathur PP. Effect of methoxychlor on the antioxidant system in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis. Toxicology. 2002; 176(1-2):67-75.

Elsharkawy EE, Sharkawy AA. Evaluation of subacute toxicity induced by methoxychlor: The protective effect of ascorbic acid. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research. 2011;1(3):119-126.

National Research Council, 2010. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. National Academies Press.

Murono EP, Derk RC, Akgul Y. In vivo exposure of young adult male rats to methoxychlor reduces serum testosterone levels and ex vivo Leydig cell testosterone formation and cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity. Reproductive Toxicology. 2006;21(2):148-153.

Althnaian T, Albokhadaim I, El-Bahr SM. Biochemical and histopathological study in rats intoxicated with carbontetrachloride and treated with camel milk. Springer Plus. 2013;2(1):57.

Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HG. Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1971;31(1):87-96.

Rec GS. Determination of alkaline phosphatase. Journal of Clinical Chemistry & Clinical Biochemistry. 1972; 10:82.

Rungby J, Ernst E. Experimentally induced lipid peroxidation after exposure to chromium, mercury or silver: interactions with carbon tetrachloride. Pharmacology & Toxicology. 1992;70(3):205-207.

Sun Y, Elwell JH, Oberley LW. A simultaneous visualization of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and catalase on polyacrylamide gels. Free Radical Research Communications. 1988;5(2):67-75.

Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry. 1976;72(7):248-54.

Bancroft J, Stevens A, Turner D. Theory and practice of histological techniques 4th Ed Churchill Living Stone, New York Edinburgh. Madrid, Sanfrancisco; 1996.

Nguyen NT, Braley S, Fleming NW, Lambourne L, Rivers R, Wolfe BM. Comparison of postoperative hepatic function after laparoscopic versus open gastric bypass. The American Journal of Surgery. 2003;186(1):40-44.

Singhal RL, Merali Z. Biochemical toxicity of cadmium. In Cadmium toxicity. Marcel Dekker New York. 1979;61-112.

Salvatore F, Sacchetti L, Castaldo G. Multivariate discriminant analysis of biochemical parameters for the differentiation of clinically confounding liver diseases. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1997; 257(1):41-58.

Hamad EM, Abdel-Rahim EA, Romeih EA. Beneficial effect of camel milk on liver and kidneys function in diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. International Journal of Dairy Science. 2011;6(3):190-197.

Al-Fartosi KG, Majid A, Auda MA, Hussein MH. The role of Camel’s milk against some oxidant-antioxidant markers of male rats treated with CCl4. International Journal of Research of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Science. 2012;3(1):385-389.

Salwa MQ, Lina AK. Antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effect of camel milk in mice treated with cisplatin. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2010;17(2):159-166.

Hamed H, Chaari F, Ghannoudi Z, ElFeki A, Ellouz SC, Gargouri A. Beneficial effects of fermented camel milk by Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris on cardiotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 97:107-114.

Zhu WW, Kong GQ, Ma MM, Li Y, Huang X, Wang LP, Peng ZY, Zhang XH, Liu XY, Wang XZ. Camel milk ameliorates inflammatory responses and oxidative stress and downregulates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats. Journal of Dairy Science. 2016;99(1):53-56.

Uversky VN, El-Fakharany EM, Abu-Serie MM, Almehdar HA, Redwan EM. Divergent anticancer activity of free and formulated camel milk α-lactalbumin. Cancer Investigation. 2017;35(9):610-623.

Palanivel MG, Rajkapoor B, Kumar RS, Einstein JW, Kumar EP, Kumar MR, Kavitha K, Kumar MP, Jayakar B. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Pisonia aculeata L. against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2008;76(2):203-216.

Al-Hashem F, Mohammad D, Bashir N, Mohammad A, Riyadh E, Mohammad K, Al-Khateeb M. Camel's milk protects against cadmium chloride induced toxicity in white albino rats. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2009a; 4(3):107-117.

Al-Hashem F. Camel's milk protects against aluminum chloride-induced toxicity in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2009b;5(3):98-109.

Nandi D, Patra RC, Swarup D. Effect of cysteine, methionine, ascorbic acid and thiamine on arsenic-induced oxidative stress and biochemical alterations in rats. Toxicology. 2005;211(1-2):26-35.

Miller KP, Gupta RK, Greenfeld CR, Babus JK, Flaws JA. Methoxychlor directly affects ovarian antral follicle growth and atresia through Bcl-2-and Bax-mediated pathways. Toxicological Sciences. 2005; 88(1):213-221.

Gupta RK, Schuh RA, Fiskum G, Flaws JA. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2006;216(3):436-445.

Elsharkawy EE, Kames AO, Sayed SM, Nisr NA, Wahba NM, Elsherif WM, Nafady AM, Abdel-Hafeez MM, Aamer AA. The ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor induced ovarian toxicity in rat. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 2014;66(9-10):415-421.

Klevay LM. January. Advances in cardiovascular-copper research. In First International Biominerals Symposium: Trace Elements in Nutrition, Health and Disease, Montreal, Canada: Institut Rosell. 2002;64-71.

Powell SR. The antioxidant properties of zinc. The Journal of Nutrition. 2000; 130(5):1447S-1454S.

Sonia S, Fatima H, Tahar SM, Abdelhamid K. Interrelationships between cadmium, zinc and antioxidants in the liver of the rat exposed orally to relatively high doses of cadmium and zinc. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2011;74(7):2099-2104.

Izadi A, Khedmat L, Mojtahedi SY. Nutritional and therapeutic perspectives of camel milk and its protein hydrolysates: A review on versatile biofunctional properties. Journal of Functional Foods. 2019;60: 103441.

Ismail T, Ahmad Z, Sestili P, Hussain M, Akram K, Ismail A, Akhtar S. Camel's milk concentrate inhibits streptozotocin induced diabetes. Food Bioscience. 2018;26: 73-79.