Relative Effectiveness of Brainstorming and Concept Mapping Instructional Strategies on Lower Primary School Pupils’ Learning Outcomes in Social Studies in Ondo State


Published: 2021-03-30

Page: 48-70

B. A. Adeyemi *

Faculty of Education, Institute of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

S. O. Adesola

Early Childhood Care and Education, School of Education, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The study investigated the relative effectiveness of brainstorming and concept mapping instructional strategies on lower primary school pupils’ learning outcomes in Social Studies. The study adopted the pretest, posttest, control group quasi-experimental research design. The population for the study comprised primary three pupils in Ondo State. The sample consisted of 102 primary three pupils, who were selected using multistage sampling procedure. Ondo central senatorial district was selected from the three senatorial districts in the state. In the senatorial district, two local government areas were selected using simple random sampling technique. Furthermore, two schools were selected from each of the local governments using purposive sampling technique. The criteria used in the selection were that: they were accessible, far from each other, and ready to participate in the study. In each of the schools, one primary three intact class was purposively selected based on the fact that pupils in primary three are more matured, more experienced, and fit for the task than pupils in either primary one or two. The two intact classes in each of the LGAs were randomly assigned to experimental and control group. In the first LGA, the two intact classes were assigned to brainstorming instructional strategy (experimental group) and conventional teaching method (control group) while in the second LGA, the classes were assigned to concept mapping instructional strategy (experimental group) and conventional teaching method (control group). Therefore, there were two experimental groups and two control groups. The two control groups were merged as one at the level of analysis. Pupils in the three groups were taught the same topics from Social Studies primary three curriculum. Three response instruments were used for data collection. They are; Social Studies Performance Test (SSPT), Pupils Attitude Scale (PAS), Pupil Interest Scale (PIS). The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Result showed significant effectiveness of brainstorming and concept mapping instructional strategies on lower primary school pupils’ performance (F (2, 98) = 160.44, p= .000, p<.05), partial eta squared (ῆ2) = .766); retention (F (1, 50) = 5.957, p= .018, p<.05,partial eta squared (ῆ2) = .106) and attitude ((F (2, 98) = 542.723, p= .000, p<.05, partial eta squared (ῆ2) = .902). The result further established the fact that Brainstorming is more effective in all the areas tested. In addition, the result showed that there is no significant influence of pupil’s interest in Social Studies on their knowledge of the subject ((F (1, 99) = 3.923, p= .05, partial eta squared (ῆ2) = .038). The study concluded that, in spite of the fact that both Brainstorming and concept mapping instructional strategies are innovative strategies in improving pupils’ performance, retention and attitude in Social Studies, the two strategies were significantly effective at improving lower primary school pupils’ learning outcomes in Social Studies compared to conventional teaching method. But, brainstorming was found to be more effective than concept mapping.

Keywords: Brainstorming, concept mapping, instructional strategies, lower primary schools, performance in social studies, retention in social studies and attitude towards social studies

How to Cite

Adeyemi, B. A., & Adesola, S. O. (2021). Relative Effectiveness of Brainstorming and Concept Mapping Instructional Strategies on Lower Primary School Pupils’ Learning Outcomes in Social Studies in Ondo State. Asian Journal of Sociological Research, 4(1), 48–70. Retrieved from


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