Harnessing Tourism Potentials for Growth and Employment Generation in Nigeria: A Socio-Economic Perspective

Full Article - PDF

Published: 2022-04-23

Page: 156-174

Supper Roland Okijie

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Ubong Edem Effiong *

Department of Economics, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The core essence of this study was to ascertain the influence of the tourism sector in fostering growth and employment in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2019. The choice of the period is premised on data availability. Specifically, the study investigated the influence of tourism on economic growth; and the influence of tourism on unemployment. Data from the Central Bank of Nigeria and the World Bank database were used. In achieving the set objectives, the study used the “Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares” (FMOLS) in estimating the two models that were developed to achieve the two objectives after co-integration was established. In the growth model, the result revealed that tourism wields a positive and substantial long-run influence on economic growth. Specifically, a unit percent increase in tourism will increase economic growth on the average by 1.3388%. For the unemployment model, it was realized that tourism exerts a negative but insignificant effect on unemployment in Nigeria. This implies that tourism reduces unemployment but such has not been substantial. In this light, the paper recommended that the tourism sector should be revamped in the quest for economic growth and employment generation in Nigeria. As such, the Mexican model of Viajemos todos por México is being suggested to drive the sector in Nigeria.

Keywords: Unemployment, economic growth, tourism, employment, FMOLS

How to Cite

Okijie, S. R., & Effiong, U. E. (2022). Harnessing Tourism Potentials for Growth and Employment Generation in Nigeria: A Socio-Economic Perspective. Asian Journal of Sociological Research, 5(1), 156–174. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJSR/article/view/1579


Download data is not yet available.


Inyang NF, Effiong UE, Okon JI. Nigeria diversification agenda and economic growth: The role of agriculture. Social Sciences and Management International Journal. 2020;1(2):36 – 51.

Agency Report. Tourism contributes 34% to Nigeria’s GDP, generates 20% employment – NBS; 2018. Available:https://www.premiumtimesng.com/entertainment/naija-fashion/271174-tourism-contributes-34-to-nigerias-gdp-generates-20-employment-nbs.html

Ganeshamoorthy K. The employment effect of tourism: A dynamic analysis. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research (AJHSSR). 2019;03(10):119-126.

Dayananda KC. Tourism and employment: Opportunities and challenges in Karnataka- special reference to Kodagu District. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2014;19(11): 01-11.

Ivana P, Meri ST, Tonci S. Impact of tourism on the employment in Croatia. Recent Advances in Business Management and Marketing. 2013;219-224.

United Nations World Tourism Organization. Tourism and Jobs: a better future for all; 2019.

Available at https://www.unwto.org/world-tourism-day-2019

World Travel and Tourism Council. Economic impact reports. 2021; Available at https://wttc.org/Research/Economic-Impact

International Labour Organization. Sustainable tourism: A driving force of job creation, economic growth and development.

Accessed on 27 March, 2016.


World Tourism Organization. 2nd T.20 Ministers Meeting – Republic of Korea; 2010.

Darrat A. Trade and development: The Asian experience. Cato Journal. 1986; 6(2), 695-699.

Dodaro S. Exports and growth: a reconsideration of causality. The Journal of Developing Areas. 1993;27(2):227-244.

Hsiao M. Tests of causality and exogeneity between exports and economic growth: the case of Asian NICs. Journal of Economic Development. 1987;12(2):143-159.

Lopez CSG, Arreola KSB. Impacts of tourism and the generation of employment in Mexico. Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista de Análisis Turístico. 2019;26(2): 94-114.

Baretje R, Defert PP. Aspects Économiques du Tourisme, Éditions Berger-Levrault, Paris; 1972.

Trust. 17 Top tourist attractions in Nigeria to visit: Tourism at its best; 2017.


Njoku C. Top five tourist attractions in Nigeria; 2019.

Available at https://guardian.ng/life/top-five-tourist-attractions-in-nigeria/

Yusuff MA, Akinde MA. Tourism development and economic growth nexus: Nigeria’s experience. European Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. 2015; 4(10):1-10.

Orekoya I. Nigerian tourism industry: A key value driver in employment generation. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports. 2018;36:12 – 17.

Rifai T. Tourism and Job Creation – Advancing the 2030 Development Agenda. Accessed on March 27, 2022. Available:https://reports.weforum.org/travel-and-tourism-competitiveness-report-2017/tourism-and-job-creation-advancing-the-2030-development-agenda/

Cohen E. Toward asociology of international tourism. Social Research. 1972;39:174-182.

Doxey G. A causation theory of visitor–resident irritants: Methodology and research inferences. The Impact of Tourism. In the Sixth Annual Conference Proceedings, pp.195-198. San Diego: The Travel Research Association; 1975.

Butler RW. The concept of tourism area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer. 1980;24:5-12.

Plog S. Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity? The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 1973; 14(3):13-16.

Becerra M. Turismo y trabajo: Una aproximación desde el mercado hotelero. Revista de Estudios Regionales y Mercado de Trabajo. 2009;5:71-86.

Ladking A. Exploring tourism labor. Annals of Tourism Research. 2011;38(3):1135-1155.

Castillo V, Figal L, Maffiolin AY, Salazar L. The causal effects of regional industrial policies on employment: a synthetic control approach. Regional Science and Urban Economics. 2017;67:25-41.

Habibi F, Rahmati M, Karimi A. Contribution of tourism to economic growth in Iran’s provinces: GDM approach. Future Business Journal. 2018;4(2):261-271.

Bhandari LR. The role of tourism for employment generation in Nepal. Nepal Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (NJMR). 2018;2(3):17-33.

Sr MV, Croes RR. Growth, development and tourism in a small economy: Evidence from Aruba. International Journal of Tourism Research. 2003;5:315–330.

Lee C, Chan C. Tourism development and economic growth: a closer look at panels. Tourism Management. 2008;29(1):180-192.

Po W and Huang, B. Tourism development and economic growth -a nonlinear approach”, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications. 2008; 387(22):5535-5542.

Akan Y, Arslan ˙I, Isık UC. The Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth: The Case of Turkey. Journal of Tourism. 2008;9:47–69.

Brida JG, Risso WA, Bonapace A. The contribution of tourism to economic growth: An empirical analysis for the case of Chile. European Journal of Tourism Research. 2009; 2:178–185.

Wang W, Ma H. On Econometric Analysis of the Relationship between GDP and Tourism Income in Guizhou, China. International Journal of Business Administration. 2015;6:41.

Kreishan FM. Time-series evidence for tourism-led growth hypothesis: A case study of Jordan. International Management Review. 2011;7:89.

Adnan H, Ali QM, Khan RE. Tourism-led growth hypothesis: A case study of Pakistan. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. 2013;18:303–313.

Manzoor F, Wei L, Asif M, Zia ul Haq M, ur Rehman H. The contribution of sustainable tourism to economic growth and employment in Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019;16:3785.

Khan A, Bibi S, Lorenzo A, Lyu J, Babar ZU. Tourism and development in developing economies: A policy implication perspective. Sustainability. 2020;12:1618.

World Bank. World Development Indicators. Addis Ababa; 2020.

Central Bank of Nigeria. Statistical bulletin. Abuja; 2020.