Some Phenotypic Characteristics and Respondents Perceptions toward High Gum Yield Hashab Trees (Acacia senegal L.) in Shikan Locality, North Kordofan, Sudan

Full Article - PDF

Published: 2020-06-06

Page: 21-28

Muneer E. S. Eltahir *

Institute of Gum Arabic Research and Desertification Studies, University of Kordofan, Sudan.

Elkhatim M. Ismaeil

Forest National Corporation, North Kordofan, Sudan.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This research was conducted in Shikan locality, North Kordofan, Sudan during 2018/2019. The aim of this research is to identify phenotypic characteristics and producers’ perceptions on high gum yield hashab trees (Acacia senegal L.). It also aims to scrutinize growth attributes of high yielding hashab tree in the study area. Social survey was done where interview was conducted using structured questionnaire which distributed to seventy seven owners of high gum yield hashab trees. Qualitative data such as bark color, flowering and fruiting period were also collected. Descriptive Statistical Analysis in Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.00) where mean, percentages, and counts were calculated. Moreover, correlation analysis was done. The results revealed that age of high gum yield hashab trees ranged from 5 to 17 years. According to the most of respondents (90%), high gum yield hashab trees exudates gum firstly at age of 5 years as a minimum while 78% of respondents stated that the bark color is reddish at tapping position. The majority (93%) of respondents described shape of gum nodules as round. As phenotypic characteristics of high gum yield hashab trees, beginning of flowering and fruiting period is May to August where positive correlation (0.32) was found. Positive correlation (0.24) was also found between starting gum exudation and number of pickings/season. The study concluded that high gum yield hashab trees could be phenotypically identified and also through experience since tree form, color, flowering and fruiting are always under farmers focus. The study recommends investigating relation between phenotypic characteristics and genetic sources of high gum yield hashab trees.

Keywords: Phenotypic, gum yield, gum productivity, Acacia senegal, Kordofan, Sudan

How to Cite

Eltahir, M. E. S., & Ismaeil, E. M. (2020). Some Phenotypic Characteristics and Respondents Perceptions toward High Gum Yield Hashab Trees (Acacia senegal L.) in Shikan Locality, North Kordofan, Sudan. Asian Journal of Research and Review in Agriculture, 2(1), 21–28. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Heuzé V, Thiollet H, Tran G, Hassoun P, Bastianelli D, Lebas F. Gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal). Feedipedia, a program by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO; 2016.


(Last Updated on November 4, 2016, 17:00)

Ickowicz A, Friot D, Guerin H. Acacia senegal, a fodder tree for the Sahel? Woods and Forests Tropical. 2005;284(2):59-69.

Adam HE, Eltahir MES, Elhaja ME, Abdelateif HI, Abdelkareem OEA, Hammad ZM, Khalifa ASO, Mahmoud TE, Elsayed MEO, Elamin HMA, Taha ME, Gerald K. Management of gum Arabic production potentialities in the Gum Belt in Kordofan, Sudan. International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 2017;3(1):1-9.

Unananaonwi OE. Estimation of gum Arabic yield and total production in Zamfra State, Nigeria. 2009; 5(2):8.

Hammad ZM. Biophysical and socioeconomic transformations in Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Agroforestry, Systems in the Gum Belt of North Kordofan, Phd Thesis, University of Kordofan; 2010. ISBN 13:978-3-659-5512-5.

Kew Gardens. Acacia senegal (gum arabic). Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; 2016.

Duke JA. Handbook of energy crops. New CROPS Web Site, Purdue University; 1983.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. Agrofores tree database: A tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya; 2009.

Bekele-Tesemma A. Useful trees and shrubs of Ethiopia: Identification, propagation and management for 17 agroclimatic zones. In: Tengnäs, B.; Kelbesa, E.; Demissew, S.; Maundu, P. (Eds.), RELMA in ICRAF Project World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; 2007.

United States Dispensatory 1918. Macroscopic characteristics, Acacia senegal (gum).

Dione M, Vassal J. Gommose et rythmes de production gommière chez Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. In: Campa C. (Éd.), Grignon C. (Éd.), Gueye M. (Éd.), Hamon S. (Éd.), L’acacia au Sénégal. Paris, ORSTOM. (Collection colloquies et séminaires). Réunion thématique sur l’acacia au Sénégal, 1996-12-03/1996-12-05, (Dakar, Sénégal). 1998;123-134.

Eisa MA, Roth M, Sama G. Acacia senegal (Gum arabic tree): Present role and need for future conservation / Sudan; 2008. Abstracts full/594.pdf

Abdel Aziz EHH, Abdelmoneim AB, Awad Elkarim SOK, Muneer ESE, Abdelatief HI. A comparative study between tapping Acacia senegal by Sunki and Axe in West Kordofan, Sudan. American Journal of Engineering, Technology and Society. 2018;5(1):1-4.

Gaafar AM. Improvement of traditional Acacia senegal agroforestry: Ecophysiological characteristic as indicators for tree–crop interaction on sandy soil in Western Sudan. Ph.D. Thesis University of Helsinki. Tropical Forestry Report No.26. 2005;100.

Ballal ME. Acacia senegal: A multi-purpose tree species for the arid and semi-arid tropics. Master’s Thesis University of Wales, UK; 1991.

Mustafa AN, Salah Eldin GH. The effect of spacing of hashab (Acacia senegal, (L.) Willd) plantation on yield of some traditional field crops in Southern Darfur. Dissertation Submitted to University of Khartoum in Fulfillment of the Requirements for Ph. D. (Forestry) Agroforestry; 2004.

Eltahir MES. Field visit to Kidwa village, North Kordofan State, Sudan; 2015.