Milling and Shedding Variability of Rice Plant at Harvest Season


Published: 2021-12-29

Page: 204-213

Alireza Allameh *

Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran.

Shabab Nemati Chali

Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The quality and yield of all cereal crops are the main objectives of farming operations. Different factors have been enumerated which have had significant effects on these properties. Among them, grain shattering is recounted as an impressive parameter that directly influences on quantity and quality of rice. To identify the variations of grain yield and its milling properties, a two-year study was conducted to assess the impact of grain shattering on them. Factorial experiment arranged by a completely randomized design with five repetitions. The independent variables assigned as rice cultivars at three levels (Hashemi, Gilaneh, and Anam), followed by harvest date at five levels (26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 days after 50% flowering), and grain place on the panicle at three levels (upper, middle, and basal). The dependent variables were chosen as the separating force of grain from its pedicel and milling properties. Data analysis demonstrated that the separating force differed significantly among rice cultivars. The maximum mean force (1.18 N) was obtained when Hashemi harvested at 26 DAF but the minimum force (0.11 N) was related to Anam harvested at 34 DAF. The effect of the year was significant (P = 0.01) owing to late planting in the first year. The separating force illustrated a reduction trend from the first to the last date of harvesting intervals for both study years. It was 9, 7, and 10 percent for Hashemi, Gilaneh, and Anam, respectively. Since an individual panicle does not ripen evenly, those grains of basal required more detaching force than the upper. An increase of 36, 57, and 51 percent were observed for Hashemi, Gilaneh, and Anam, respectively. Natural shattering went up about 0.049, 0.081, and 0.112 percent for Hashemi, Gilaneh, and Anam, respectively for trial intervals. Late planting in the first year impressed the head rice yield significantly so that cultivars experienced a rise of 6-10 percent in the second year. It is suggested that the optimum harvest date for rice cultivars would be 30 DAF overall.

Keywords: Rice, yield, quality, shedding, harvest season, head rice yield

How to Cite

Allameh, A., & Chali, S. N. (2021). Milling and Shedding Variability of Rice Plant at Harvest Season. Asian Journal of Research and Review in Agriculture, 3(1), 204–213. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Ichikawa T, Sugiama T, Takahashi H, Miyahara S. Equipment for quantitative measurement of shattering habit of paddy. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. 1990;24:37-42.

Kawamura T, Shoji K., Tokuda M. Measurement of force for detaching single grain of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Japanese Society of Agricultural Machinery. 2002;64(5):116-122.

Inoue E, Ueka I., Hirai Y., Matui M., Fukushima T., Mori K. Evaluation of strength distribution on detachment force of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) grain. Scientific Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 2003;58(1-2):27-32.

H Ji,, Chu S, Jiang W, Cho Y, Hahn J, Eun M, McCouch SR, Koh H. Characterization and mapping of a shattering mutant in rice that corresponds to a block of domestication genes. Genetics. 2006;173:995-1005.

Oduori MF, Mbuya TO, Sakai J, Inoue E. Shattered rice grain loss attributable to the combine harvester reel: model formation and fitting to field data. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Journal, Manuscript PM 06 013. 2008;X.

Lamo, J, Tongoona P, Okori P, Dereta J, Hendricks R, Liang M. A new cheap and efficient single grain shatter tester for use in rice breeding. Crop Science of Society of America. 2011; 51(2):651-655.

Matsushita K, Iida S, Ideta O, Sunohara Y, Ishii T. Use of a universal testing machine for quantitative evaluation of the shattering habit of rice (Oryza sativa L.) for whole crop silage use. Grassland Science. 2012;58:170-173.

Lu R, Siebenmorgen TJ, Costello TA, Fryar Jr EO. Effect of rice moisture content at harvest on economic return. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 1995;11(5):685-690.

Sürek H, Beşer N. A research to determine the suitable rice (Oryza sativa L.) harvesting time. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Forestry. 1998;22:391-394.

Thompson JF, Mutters RG. Effect of weather and rice moisture at harvest on milling quality of California medium grain rice. American Society of Agricultural Biology Engineers. 2006;49(2): 435-440.

Siebenmorgen TJ, Bautista RC, Counce PA. Optimal harvest moisture contents for maximizing milling quality of long and medium grain rice cultivars. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 2007; 23(4):517-527.

Hossain MF, Bhuiya MSU, Ahmed M, Mian MH. Effect of harvesting time on the milling and physicochemical properties of aromatic rice. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science. 2009;42(2): 91-96.

Bagheri I, Dehpour MB, Payman SH, Zareiforoush H. Rupture strength of brown rice varieties as affected by moisture content and loading rate. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2011;5: 1239-1246.

Allameh A, Alizadeh MR. Evaluating rice losses in delayed rough rice drying. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 2013;4(4):799-804.

Hongthong P, Huang M, Xia B, Cao F, Jiang P, Zou Y. Yield formation strategies of a loose-panicle super hybrid rice. Research on Crops. 2012;13(3):781-789.

Scofield GN, Hirose T, Aoki N, Furbank RT. Involvement of the sucrose transporter, OsSUT1, in the long-distance pathway for assimilates transport in rice. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2007;58(12): 3155-3169.

Ji H, Kim SR, Kim YH, Kim H, Eun MY, Jin ID, Cha YS, Yun DW, Ahn BO, Lee MC, Lee GS, Yoon UH, Lee JS, Lee YH, Suh SC, Jiang W, Yang JI, Jin P, McCouch SR, An G, Koh HJ. Inactivation of the CTD phosphatase-like gene OsCPL1enhances the development of the abscission layer and seed shattering in rice. Plant Journal. 2010;61:96-106.

Lin Z, Griffith ME, Li X, Zhu Z, Tan L, Fu Y, Zhang W, Wang X, Xie D, Sun C. Origin of seed shattering in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Planta. 2006;226(1):11-20.

Fukuta Y, Yoshida H, Fukui K, Kobayashi A. Analysis of shattering degree and abscission layer development in shattering resistant mutant lines induced from an Indica rice (Oryza Sativa L.) variety, Nan-jing 11. Breeding Science. 1994;195-200.

Okubo K. Morphological evaluation of the trace of grain detachment in Japonica rice cultivars with different shattering habits. Plant Production Science. 2014;17(4):291-297.

Suastawa IN, Kitani O, Sakai N, Yonekawa S, Okamoto T, Torii T. Grain detachment strengths and grain mass of three rice types. Journal of Japanese Society of Agricultural Machinery. 1996;58(1):65-72.

Szot B, Ferrero A, Molenda M. Binding force and mechanical strength of rice grain. International Agrophysics. 1998;12:227-230.

Choe JS, Inoue E, Mitusoka M, Okayasu T, Hirai Y. Statistical analysis of threshing characteristics of impact type rice plant threshing device. Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 2013;58(1):69-78.

Tang Z, Li Y, Zhao Z, Sun T. Structural and parameter design of transverse multi cylinders device on rice agronomic characteristics. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015;13(4): 1-12.

Ghosh M, Mandal BK, Mandal BB, Lodh SB, Dash AK. The effect of planting date and nitrogen management on yield and quality of aromatic rice (Oryza Sativa L.). Journal of Agricultural Science. 2004;142(2):183-191.

Sha XY, Linscombe SD. Planting date affects grain and milling yields of water-seeded Clearfield rice. Agronomy Journal. 2007;99(4):1143-1150.

Zhao X, Fitzgerald MM. Climate change: implications for the yield of edible rice. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e66218. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066218.

Zhou L, Liang S, Ponce K, Marundon S, Ye G, Zhao X. Factors affecting head rice yield and chalkiness in Indica rice. Field Crops Research. 2015;172:1-10.