Main Article Content
The research was conducted in Mzinga River catchment, Morogoro, Tanzania during the periods of 2010 - 2013 to assess the participation of local community in tree conservation practices and tree planting for Sustainable Forest Management. Providing goods and services, while maintaining ecosystem functions and forest biodiversity that built up sustainable forest to supply and support human welfare, is one of the great challenges. The Mzinga project started in 2003/04 with main focus on conservation practices to ensure sustainable forest, while addressing issues related to flow of water. The assessment was done by a combination of questionnaire, forest inventory and field observation. Socio-economic data were collected through household questionnaire survey while Ecological data collected through forest inventory. Analysis of quantitative socio-economic data was analyzed using SPSS, while content analysis was used for qualitative data. Inventory data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel. The results showed that, 92% of the community were actively involved in conservation activities over the catchment. These activities ranged from tree planting for economic gains, soil erosion control and water conservation. The most popular conservation activity was tree planting 43%. The study was able to document the re-establishment of a total of 99, 683 different trees planted over the catchment. Species mostly preferred and planted included Khaya anthotheca, Senna siamea and Mangifera indica. 83% of the people obtain firewood and fruits from planted trees. Findings also showed that mean stems density, basal area and volume for Vituli and Bweregu forests were 738, 3.27, 10.71 and 892, 4.74, 16.44 per ha, respectively. Fuel wood and fruits provided powerful incentives for tree planting while 50% felt that lack of land and unfavourable climatic conditions are the major constraint to conservation. It is concluded that most of the ongoing tree planting for fuel wood, fruits and timber. It is concluded that local community have a significant contribution towards conservation of the catchment. Further the major conservation activity seems to be tree planting. This research recommends maintaining current conservation activity, land - tenure system should be changed and strengthening conservation education to improve the conservation initiatives by the local people.
Han JE, Mohney LL, Tang KF, Pantoja CR, Lightner DV. Plasmid mediated tetracycline resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimps. Aquaculture Reports. 2015;2:17-21.
Ye Y, Chiogna G, Cirpka OA, Grathwohl P, Rolle M. Enhancement of plume dilution in two‐dimensional and three‐dimensional porous media by flow focusing in high‐ permeability inclusions. Water Resources Research. 2015;51(7):5582-5602.
Kissinger GM, Herold M, De Sy V. Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation: A synthesis report for REDD+ policymakers. Lexeme Consulting; 2012.
Malimbwi R, Zahabu E, Monela G, Misana S, Jambiya G, Mchome B. Charcoal potential of miombo woodlands at kitulangalo, tanzania. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 2005; 17(2):197-210.
Retrieved May 30, 2021
Ahrends A. Patterns of degradation in lowland coastal forests in Coast Region, Tanzania. Unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Greifsward; 2005.
Hartter J, Goldman A, Southworth J. Responses by households to resource scarcity and human–wildlife conflict: Issues of fortress conservation and the surrounding agricultural landscape. Journal for Nature Conservation. 2011;19(2):79-86.
Smith B, Wårlind D, Arneth A, Hickler T, Leadley P, Siltberg J, Zaehle S. Implications of incorporating N cycling and N limitations on primary production in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model. Biogeosciences. 2014;11:2027–2054.
FAO. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome; 2015.
Winfred LO. Linking human rights to poverty reduction strategy papers: (PRSP) a Study Case for Kenya with Specific Reference to HIV/AIDS (Doctoral dissertation, University of Essex); 2004.
Schösler H, Riddington C. Developing a market for watershed services in Tanzania: A Scoping Study. Poverty Reduction and Environmental Management (PREM) Working Paper: PREM 06/04; 2006.
Bhatia Z, Ringia O. Socio-economic survey of selected villages in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Uluguru Slopes Planning Project Report No.3. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy; 1996.
Lovett JC. Elevational and latitudinal changes in tree associations and diversity in the Eastern Arc mountains of Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 1996;629-650.
Hymas O. Bananas on The Hill. M.Sc. in anthropology and Ecology of Development, UCL; 2000.
Available:http://www.Africanconservation.com/uluguru/ statusofbiodiversity.html] site visited on 10/05/2009.
FAO. Non-wood Forest Products in 15 countries of Tropical Asia: An overview, P. Vantomme, A. Markkula & R. N. Leslie, eds. Bangkok; 2002.
Leakey RRB. Agroforestry: A delivery mechanism for multi-functional agriculture. 461–471 in Kellimore LR (ed) Handbook on Agroforestry: Management Practices and Environmental Impact. Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology Series. Nova Science Publishers, New York; 2010.
MNRT. The Wildlife Policy of Tanzania. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT). Government Printers, Dar-es-Salaam. 1998;35.
Bhatia Z, Buckley P. The Uluguru slopes planning project: Promoting community involvement in biodiversity conservation. Journal of East African Natural History. 1998;87(1):339-347.
Mbilinyi B, Kashaigili J. How much forest is there in the Eastern Arc Mountains? The Arc Journal No. 19. 2005; 4-5.
Mulengera MK, Lulandala LLL, Maliondo SMS. Soil erosion and sediment yield from the degraded Mzinga River Catchment in Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. 2009;79(1).
Mulengera M, SM M, RPC T. Community Participation in Tree Planting: Experiences From the Mzinga River Catchment. In Transforming Livelihoods of Smallscale Farmers: Contribution of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research: Proceeding [s] of the First Annual PANTIL Research Workshop Held in Morogoro, 25-27 September, 2006 (p. 85). Programme for Agricultural and Natural Resources Transformation for Improved Livelihoods (PANTIL), Directorate of Research and Postgraduate Studies, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA); 2007.
Masawe JL. Farming system and agricultural production among small farmers in the Uluguru Mountain area, Morogoro region, Tanzania. African Study Monographs. 1992;13(3):171-183.
Rapp A, Axelsson V, Berry L, Murray-Rust DH. Soil erosion and sediment transport in the Morogoro River catchment, Tanzania. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography. 1972;54(3-4):125-155.
Nsolomo VR, Venn K, Solheim H. The ability of some fungi to cause decay in the East African camphor tree, Ocotea usambarensis. Mycological Research. 2000; 104(12):1473-1479.
Malimbwi RE. Sunya Natural Forest Inventory Report. Consultant report, FORCONSULT, Faculty of Forestry & Nature Conservation, SUA, Morogoro; 1999.
Kreb CJ. Ecological methodology. Herper & Row, New York. 1989;704.
Pfeifer JH, Kahn LE, Merchant JS, Peake SJ, Veroude K, Masten CL, Dapretto M. Longitudinal change in the neural bases of adolescent social self-evaluations: Effects of age and pubertal development. Journal of Neuroscience. 2013;33(17):7415-7419.
Godoy O, Valladares F, Castro‐Díez P. Multispecies comparison reveals that invasive and native plants differ in their traits but not in their plasticity. Functional Ecology. 2011;25(6):1248-1259.
Ziter C, Graves RA, Turner MG. How do land-use legacies affect ecosystem services in United States cultural landscapes? Landscape Ecology. 2017; 32(11):2205-2218.
Ares A, Terry T, Harrington C, Devine W, Peter D, Bailey J. Biomass removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control effects on five-year growth of Douglas-fir in coastal Washington. Forest Science. 2007; 53(5):600-610.
Corbin JD, Holl KD. Applied nucleation as a forest restoration strategy. Forest Ecology and Management. 2012;265:37-46.
Widianingsih NN, Theilade I, Pouliot M. Contribution of forest restoration to rural livelihoods and household income in Indonesia. Sustainability. 2016;8(9):835.
Paul S. Community participation in development projects. Washington, DC: World Bank; 1987.
Emerton L. Using economics for biodiversity strategies and action plans in Eastern Africa; 1998.
Emerton L. Balancing the opportunity costs of wildlife conservation for communities around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. IIED; 1999.
Mbwambo LR. Species utilisation preferences and resource potential of miombo woodlands: a case of selected villages in Tabora, Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University); 2000.
Winfred LO. Linking Human Rights to Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: (PRSP) a Study Case for Kenya with Specific Reference to HIV/AIDS (Doctoral dissertation, University of Essex); 2004.
Butuyuyu J. The impacts of economic incentives in afforestation activities in Same District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation for Award of MSc Degree at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 2003;79.
Kiwale AT. Analysis of socio-economic determinants of afforestation and its impacts in semi-arid areas: Case study of Magu district Mwanza Tanzania. Unpublished Dissertation for Award of MSc. (MNRSA) of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 2002.
Njana R. Involvement of local people in the management of catchment forest reserves in Tanzania. A case study of North Mamiwa-Kasara Catchment Forest Reserve (Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation for Award of MSc. Degree at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 1998;137.
Kajembe GC, Nduwamungu J, Luoga EJ. The impact of community-based forest management and joint forest management on the forest resource base and local people’s livelihoods: Case studies from Tanzania; 2004.
Broekhoven G, Gathara G. Eastern Africa Wildlife Society – Forest Conservation in East Africa. Swara Magazine. 1995;1(2): 27.
Kessy JF. Conservation and utilization of natural resources in the East Usambara forest reserves: conventional views and local perspectives (No. 18). Wageningen Agricultural University; 1998.
Mbeyale GE. Socio-economic assessment of the factors influencing building poles consumption, conservation and management of Amani Forest Nature Reserve (Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (Forestry) of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania). 1999;129.
Majumdar K, Datta BK, Shankar U. Lower altitudinal variation in habitat associations, tree diversity and co-dominant population structures along moist deciduous forests dominated by sal (Shorea robusta) in northeast India. Forest Science and Technology. 2014;10(4):201-212.
Keenan RJ, Reams GA, Achard F, de Freitas JV, Grainger A, Lindquist E. Dynamics of global forest area: Results from the FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. Forest Ecology and Management. 2015;352:9-20.
Bonari G, Acosta AT, Angiolini C. Mediterranean coastal pine forest stands: understorey distinctiveness or not?. Forest ecology and management. 2017;391:19-28.
Joyi O, Utanga MM, Dindi OO, Ynekulu J, Ahman EB. The effect of forest fragmentation on tree species abundance and diversity in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Appl Ecol Environ Res. 2015;13(2):307–324.
Thompson I, Mackey B, McNulty S, Mosseler A. Forest resilience, biodiversity, and climate change. In Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. Technical Series no. 43. 1-67. 2009;43:1-67.
Kimaro J, Lulandala L. Forest cover and land use change in Ngumburuni forest reserve, Rufiji District, Tanzania. Journal of Environment and Ecology. 2013;4(2): 113.
Kijazi A, Kisangiri M. Multifunctional network monitoring system using SMS. In Proceedings of the 2nd Pan African International Conference on Science, Computing and Telecommunications (PACT). 2014;143-147. IEEE.
Navroodi IH, Zarkami R, Basati M, Limaei SM. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Persian oak along altitudinal gradation and gradient (Case study: Ilam province, Iran). Journal of Forest Science. 2015;61(7):297-305.
Philip MS. Measuring trees and forests. CAB international; 1994.
Shankar U. A case of high tree diversity in a sal (Shorea robusta)-dominated lowland forest of Eastern Himalaya: Floristic composition, regeneration and conservation. Current Science. 2001;776-786.
Nduwamungu J, Malimbwi RE. Tree and shrub species diversity in miombo woodland. A case study of Kitulangalo Forest Reserve, Morogoro, Tanzania. In: Proceedings of an international symposium on assessment and monitoring of forests in tropical dry regions with special reference to gallery Forests (Edited by Imana-Encinas J, Christoph K.), 4 – 7 November, 1996, Brasilia, Brazil. 1997;239–258.
Mligo C, Lyaruu H, Ndangalasi H, Marchant R. Vegetation community structure, composition and distribution pattern in the Zaraninge Forest, Bagamoyo District, Tanzania. Journal of East African Natural History. 2009;98(2):223-239.
Mligo C. Conservation of plant biodiversity of Namatimbili forest in the southern coastal forests of Tanzania. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2015;7(3):148-172.
Zahabu E, Malimbwi RE. Impact of charcoal extraction on the miombo woodlands: The case of Kitulangalo Area, Tanzania. Unpublished Dissertation for Award of MSc Degree at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 2001;106.
Kingazi SP. Assessment of Socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the Management of chrome catchment forest reserve, south pare mountains, Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation for Award of MSc Degree at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 2002;114.
Winfred LO. Linking human rights to poverty reduction strategy papers:(PRSP) a Study Case for Kenya with Specific Reference to HIV/AIDS (Doctoral dissertation, University of Essex); 2004.
Virapongse A. Smallholders and forest landscape restoration in upland northern Thailand. International Forestry Review. 2017;19(4):102-119.
Batulaine GW. Assessment of baseline ecological and socio-economic factors for forest restoration planning in the Bunduki gap, Uluguru Mountains Forests. Dissertation for Award of MSc Degree at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 2007;146.