Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Cola lepidota Seeds

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Published: 2024-02-06

Page: 1-10

Emaime Jimmy Uwanta

Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin LGA., PMB 1167, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Itohowo Okon Akpan *

Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin LGA., PMB 1167, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aims: The study was carried out to examine the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Cola lepidota seeds.

Place and Duration of the Study: Samples for the study; Cola lepidota seeds were collected from Nto Unang Atan in Ekpenyong Atai 1, Essien Udim L.G.A., Akwa Ibom State. The samples were analyzed in the Chemistry laboratory of Akwa Ibom State University and Microbiology laboratory of University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The work lasted for three months.

Methodology: Air-dried seeds were ground to fine powder using a manual grinding machine and were stored in an airtight container until further use. The ground sample (20 g) was extracted with 80 mL of ethanol at room temperature for 72 hours using maceration method. A qualitative phytochemical test was conducted on the ethanol extract of the seeds of monkey cola. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was evaluated for six bacteria and four fungi using the well in agar diffusion technique.

Results: The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of all the phytochemical tested except tannins, anthraquinone, and resins. The moisture content and dry weight matter of the seeds were determined to be 35.87 ± 0.77% and 64.13 ± 0.77% respectively. All the pathogenic bacteria and fungi were found susceptible to the extract mostly within the extract concentrations of 400 mg/mL and 500 mg/mL; though some were inhibited at the lower concentrations of the extract. No activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at all concentrations of the plant extract. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined on Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger to be 100, 350, 150, and 150 mg/mL respectively.

Conclusion: The bioactivity of the ethanol extract of Cola lepidota seeds may be attributed to the interaction among the phytochemicals present in the extract. Cola lepidota seeds that seem to be treated as waste may be harnessed into pharmaceuticals for healthcare maintenance.

Keywords: Concentrations, maceration, pathogens, phytochemicals, susceptibility

How to Cite

Uwanta, E. J., & Akpan , I. O. (2024). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Cola lepidota Seeds. Asian Journal of Research in Medicine and Medical Science, 6(1), 1–10. Retrieved from


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