Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) in Orthodontics: A Review

Full Article - PDF

Published: 2023-01-09

Page: 1-11


Rajeev Sharma

Directorate of Dental Health, Shimla, Health and Family Welfare Department, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Deepak Mohan Soni *

Directorate of Dental Health, Shimla, Health and Family Welfare Department, Himachal Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Hallmark of orthodontics is the important fact that there should be movement of designated teeth in the line of force intended to be in proper positions harmonious with all other hard and soft tissues and there should be absolutely no movement of any other tooth as a reaction to the force applied. This resistance to movement of the reactive teeth is called anchorage. Absolute anchorage to achieve practically seems to be next to impossible at present. But “Secure Anchorage” atleast is a prerequisite for successful treatment of various malocclusions. Routine methods of anchorage for orthodontic tooth movement involves teeth, extraoral and/or intermaxillary appliances. But these methods are still inadequate in terms of anchorage control of the reactive units and result is often unsatisfactory intra and inter-arch alignment. Skeletal anchorage in the form of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) or miniscrews, has changed the scenario of anchorage control providing maximum anchorage with minimum patient compliance and without a complicated clinical procedure. The aim of this article is to extensively discuss the historical development, design, types, clinical procedure, important factors for stability and other biologic parameters necessary for their clinical use.

Keywords: Orthodontics, teeth, TADs (temporary anchorage devices)


How to Cite

Sharma, R., & Soni, D. M. (2023). Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) in Orthodontics: A Review. Asian Journal of Research in Medicine and Medical Science, 5(1), 1–11. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJRMMS/article/view/1705

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Grabber TM. Orthodontic principles and practice. 3rd edition mosby: W.B. Saunders; 1972.

Tweed C. Clinical Orthodontics. St Louis, CV Mosby Co; 1966.

Kalra A, Jaggi N, Jasoria G, Shamim W, Rathore S, Manchanda M. Miniscrew implants as temporary anchorage devices in orthodontics: A comprehensive review. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2013;14(5):993– 9.

Tocolini DG, Silva POD, Grabowski I, Carelli J, Morais ND, Correr GM et al. Orthodontic treatment of ankylosed maxillary incisor through osteogenic distraction and simplified biomechanics. Case Reports in Dentistry. 2019;2019:1-10.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8152793

Angelopoulou MV, Koletsi D, Vadiakas G, Halazonetis DJ. Induced ankylosis of a primary molar for skeletal anchorage in the mandible as alternative to mini-implants. Prog Orthod. 2015; 16(18): 1-7.

DOI 10.1186/s40510-015-0090-0

Kokich VG, Shapiro PA, Oswald R, Koskinen-Moffett L, Clarren SK. Ankylosed teeth as abutments for maxillary protraction: a case report. Am J Orthod. 1985;88(4):303–7.

Omnell ML, Sheller B. Maxillary protraction to intentionally ankylosed deciduous canines in a patient with cleft palate. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1994;106(2): 201–5.

Da Silva Filho OG, Ozawa TO, Okada CH, Okada HY, Carvalho RM. Intentional ankylosis of deciduous canines to reinforce maxillary protraction. J Clin Orthod. 2003; 37(6):315–20.

Daskalogiannakis J. Glossary of orthodontic terms. Leipzig, Quintessence Publishing Co, 2000.

Cope J. Temporary anchorage devices in orthodontics: A paradigm shift. Semin Orthod. 2005;11:3–9.

Mizrahi E. The use of miniscrews in orthodontics: A review of selected clinical applications. Prim Dent J. 2016;5(4): 20–7.

Brånemark PI, Breine U, Adell R, Hansson BO, Lindström J, Ohlsson Å. Intra-osseous anchorage of dental prostheses: I. Experimental Studies. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1969;3(2):81– 100.

Gainsforth BL, Higley LB. A study of orthodontic anchorage possibilities in basal bone. Am J Orthod Oral Surg. 1945; 31(8):406– 17.

DOI:10.1016/0096-6347(45)90025-1.

Creekmore TD, Eklund MK. The Possibility of Skeletal Anchorage. J Clin Orthod. 1983;17:266–9.

Kanomi R. Mini implant for orthodontic anchorage. J Clin Orthod. 1997;31:763–70.

Melsen B. Mini-implants: where are we? J Clin Orthod 2005; 39:539-47.

Costa A, Raffaini M, Melsen B. Miniscrews as orthodontic anchorage: a preliminary report. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1998;13:201-9.

Labanaaskaite B, Jankauskas G, Vasiliauskas A, Haffar N. Implants for orthodontic anchorage. Meta-analysis. Stomatol. 2005;7:128–32.

Roberts WE, Helm FR, Marshall KJ, Gongloff RK. Rigid endosseous implants for orthodontic and orthopedic anchorage. Angle Orthod. 1989;59(4):247–56.

Papadopoulos MA, Tarawneh F. The use of miniscrew implants for temporary skeletal anchorage in orthodontics: A comprehensive review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103:e6–e15.

DOI:10.1016/j.tripleo.2006.11.022.

Muhamad A, Nezar W. Miniscrews: Clinical Application of Orthodontic. RRJDS. 2014;2(3):32–43. doi:10.5455/jrmds.2014242.

Suzuki M, Deguchi T, Watanabe H, Seiryu M, Iikubo M, Sasano T, et al. Evaluation of optimal length and insertion torque for miniscrews. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2013;144(2):251–9. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.03.021.

Costa A, Pasta G, Bergamaschi G. Intraoral hard and soft tissue depths for temporary anchorage devices. Semin Orthod. 2005;11(1):10–5.

DOI:10.1053/j.sodo.2004.11.003.

Liu SS, Cruz-Marroquin E, Sun J, Stewart KT, Allen MR. Orthodontic mini-implant diameter does not affect in-situ linear microcrack generation in the mandible or the maxilla. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012;142(6):768–73.

DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.07.014.

Lim JW, Kim WS, Kim IK, Son CY, Byun HI. Three dimensional finite element method for stress distribution on the length and diameter of orthodontic miniscrew and cortical bone thickness. Kor J Orthod 2003;33:11-20.

Mah J, Bergstrand F. Temporary anchorage devices: a status report. J Clin Orthod. 2005;39:132-6.

Dalstra M, Cattaneo PM, Melsen B. Load transfer of miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage. Orthod. 2004;1:53-62.

Holberg C, Winterhalder P, Holberg N, Rudzki-Janson I, Wichelhaus A. Direct versus indirect loading of orthodontic miniscrew implants—an FEM analysis. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17(8):1821–7.

DOI:10.1007/s00784-012-0872-4.

Holberg C, Winterhalder P, Holberg N, Wichelhaus A, Rudzki-Janson I. Indirect miniscrew anchorage: biomechanical loading of the dental anchorage during mandibular molar protraction—an FEM analysis. J Orofac Orthop. 2014;75(1):16–24.

DOI:10.1007/s00056-013-0190-8.

Bernhart T, Vollgruber A, Gahleitner A, Dörtbudak O, Haas R. Alternative to the median region of the palate for placement of an orthodontic implant. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2000;11(6):595–601.

DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0501.2000.011006595.x.

Poggioa PM, Incorvati C, Velo S, Carano A. Safe zones”: A Guide for Miniscrew Positioning in the Maxillary and Mandibular Arch. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:191–7.

Fayed MMS, Pazera P, Katsaros C. Optimal sites for orthodontic miniimplant placement assessed by cone beam computed tomography. Angle Orthod. 2010;80(5):939–51.

DOI:10.2319/121009-709.1.

Chen YJ, Chang HH, Lin HY, Lai EH, Hung H, Yao HC, et al. Stability of miniplates and miniscrews used for orthodontic anchorage: experience with 492 temporary anchorage devices. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19(11):1188–96.

Miyazawa K, Kawaguchi M, Tabuchi M, Goto S. Accurate presurgical determination for self-drilling miniscrew implant placement using surgical guides and cone-beam computed tomography. Eur J Orthod. 2010;32(6):735–40.

DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjq012.

Kim SH, Kang JM, Choi B, Nelson G. Clinical application of a stereolithographic surgical guide for simple positioning of orthodontic mini-implants. World J Orthod. 2008;9(4):371–82.

Mizrahi E, Mizrahi B. Mini-screw implants (temporary anchorage devices): orthodontic and pre-prosthetic applications. J Orthod. 2007;34(2):80–94.

DOI:10.1179/146531207225021987.

Kyung HM, Park HS, Bae SM, Sung JH, Kim IB. Development of orthodontic micro-implants for intraoral anchorage. J Clin Orthod. 2003;37:321–8.

Carano A, Velo S, Leone P, Siciliani G. Clinical applications of the miniscrew anchorage system. J Clin Orthod. 2005;39:9–24.

Miyawaki S, Koyama I, Inoue M, Mishima K, Sugahara T, Takano-Yamamoto T. Factors associated with the stability of titanium screws placed in the posterior region for orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;124:373-8.

Liou EJW, Pai BCJ, Lin JCY. Do miniscrews remain stationary under orthodontic forces? Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2004;126(1):42–7.

DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.06.018.

Duyck J, Ronold HJ, Van Oosterwyck H, et al. The influence of static and dynamic loading on marginal bone reactions around osseointegrated implants: an animal experimental study. Clin Oral Implant Res. 2001;12:207-218.

Moon CH, Lee DG, Lee HS, Im JS, Baek SH. Factors Associated with the Success Rate of Orthodontic Miniscrews Placed in the Upper and Lower Posterior Buccal Region. Angle Orthod. 2008;78(1):101–6.

Viwattanatipa N, Thanakitcharu S, Uttraravichien A, Pitiphat W. Survival analyses of surgical miniscrews as orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2009;136(1):29–36. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.06.018.

Melsen B, Costa A. Immediate loading of implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Clin Orthod Res. 2000;3:23-8.

Melsen B, Verna C. Miniscrew implants: the aarhus anchorage system. Semin Orthod. 2005;11:24-31.

Ohashi E, Pecho OE, Moron M, Lagravere MO. Implant vs. screw loading protocols in orthodontics: a systematic review. Angle Orthod 2006;76:721-7

Büchter A, Wiechmann D, Koerdt S, Wiesmann HP, Piffko J, Meyer U. Load-related implant reaction of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2005;16:473–9.

Ohmae M, Saito S, Morohashi T, Seki K, Qu H, Kanomi R, et al. A clinical and histological evaluation of titanium mini-implants as anchors for orthodontic intrusion in the beagle dog. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001;119:489-97.

Chen YJ, Chen YH, Lin LD, Yao CC. Removal torque of miniscrew used for orthodontic anchorage: a preliminary report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2006;21:283-9.

Motoyoshi M, Hirabayashi M, Uemura M, Shimizu N. Recommended placement torque when tightening an orthodontic mini-implant. Clin Oral Implant Res. 2006;17:109–14.

Wilmes B, Rademacher C, Olthoff G, Drescher D. Parameters affecting primary stability of orthodontic miniimplants. J Orofac Orthop. 2006;67:162–74.

Kim JW, Ahn SJ, Chang YI. Histomorphometric and mechanical analyses of the drill-free screw as orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005;128: 190–4.

Miyawaki S, Koyama I, Inoue M, Mishima K, Sugahara T, Takano-Yamamoto T. Factors associated with the stability of titanium screws placed in the posterior region for orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;124:373–8.

Kravitz ND, Kusnoto B. Risks and complications of orthodontic miniscrews. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2007;131(4):S43–S51.

DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.04.027.