https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/issue/feed Asian Journal of Research in Biosciences 2024-05-09T06:16:52+00:00 Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Biosciences</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers in all areas of Biology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. </p> https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/2005 Managing Marigold Insect Pests: Effective Control Strategies 2024-04-10T12:19:04+00:00 Prakash Awasthi prakashawasthi82@gmail.com <p>Marigolds (<em>Tagetes spp.</em>) are well-liked ornamental plants that have a variety of uses in the landscape and colorful blooms. They are, however, prone to a variety of insect pests that can harm their development and appearance. This study's main objective is to evaluate integrated pest management (IPM) strategies that reduce the usage of chemical pesticides and support environmentally friendly pest management. A comprehensive pest management strategy must include cultural practices including crop rotation, trap cropping, and maintaining garden hygiene. Utilizing advantageous insects like parasitoids and predators aids in biological control and lessens the need for chemical treatments. Furthermore, we assess the use of natural therapies like neem oil and <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> as secure and sustainable substitutes for conventional pesticides. For these therapies to be effective, time and accuracy are essential. The need for routine inspection and early insect infestation detection is also emphasized in this abstract to protect marigold plants from severe harm. Successful and long-lasting marigold pest management can be achieved by putting a combination of these techniques into practice that is customized to the particular pest pressures in a given setting. A comprehensive and diversified strategy is needed to control insect pests in the marigold growth process. Growers can enjoy healthy, bright marigold displays while minimizing the environmental impact of pest management procedures by integrating a variety of control strategies and giving ecologically friendly techniques priority.</p> 2024-04-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/2020 Flower Bud Formation in Fruit Crops 2024-04-20T13:01:13+00:00 Prakash Awasthi prakashawasthi82@gmail.com Shiva Prasad Adhikari Bibechana Paudel Sujan Bogati Dipesh Joshi <p>Flower formation is the initial step toward gaining an economic output. Fruit production starts with the formation of flower buds. A crucial stage of fructification is flowering. Flower bud formation occurs in five stages i.e. induction, initiation, differentiation, maturation, and anthesis. Flower bud formation is influenced by both internal circumstances and external environmental influences. The more the production of flower the more chance of setting fruit. Deficiencies of some hormones and nutrients causes bud dormancy which can be reduced by the help of growth hormones and some regulators which enhances complete flower formation. This paper will help to understand the basic physiology behind the flower bud formation, biochemical changes during bud formation as well as factors affecting the bud formation in fruit crops.</p> 2024-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/2007 Nanomaterials to Encapsulate Bacteria for Biological Applications 2024-04-12T12:51:09+00:00 Ramesh Keerthivasan Karuppiah Vijay karuppiahvijay@gmail.com Kangasalam Amala <p>Nanotechnology has developed as a ground-breaking field with enormous potential for a wide range of applications, including biotechnology, medicine, and environmental cleanup. One intriguing use is encasing bacteria in nanomaterials to improve and control their biological functions. In order to modify the biological functions of bacteria, various forms of nanomaterials are employed to encapsulate them. Through the goal of utilizing bacteria-encased nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, bioremediation, and biotherapeutic interventions, researchers have been investigating various nanomaterials in recent years. Due to their changeable surface characteristics, metallic nanoparticles, such gold and silver nanoparticles, enable precise control over bacterial contact. Additionally, encapsulated bacteria benefit from the protective habitats provided by polymeric nanomaterials like liposomes, micelles, and hydrogels, which improves their survival and activity.</p> <p>The use planned and the desired interaction with the bacteria that are enclosed influence the choice of nanomaterial. The viability and activity of encapsulated bacteria can be affected by a variety of encapsulation methods, including physical adsorption, covalent bonding, and layer-by-layer construction. Researchers may design novel systems that harness bacteria's biological activity for a variety of purposes by using the features of nanomaterials and improving encapsulation methods. To turn these encapsulation technologies into useful and secure applications, there are still issues to be solved, including as long-term stability, biocompatibility, and regulatory concerns. In conclusion, the integration of bacteria with nanomaterials opens up new avenues for manipulating their biological functions. As nanotechnology continues to evolve, the synergy between nanomaterials and encapsulated bacteria holds great promise for revolutionizing fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and environmental science.</p> 2024-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/2012 Global Clinical Case Studies in Candida species: A Review 2024-04-15T07:23:06+00:00 Dhandayuthapani Nisha Fausul Hugh Fareedhul Fahmitha Ganesan Kaviya Vijayakumar Padmavathi Karuppiah Vijay karuppiahvijay@gmail.com <p><em>Candida</em> species are a group of fungi that can cause infections in humans. These fungi are commonly found in nature and on human skin, but can cause infections in immunocompromised individuals. Candida can affect various areas such as the mouth, throat, vagina, and blood, leading to different clinical manifestations. Candida species include <em>C. albicans</em>, <em>C. glabrata</em>, and <em>C. tropicalis</em>, and many more. In the recent decade, several studies bring into light the Identification of Candida-specific drug targets which enables targeted therapies with minimal impact on the host, Effective drug targets can disrupt essential fungal processes, leading to efficient elimination of the infection, Specific protein targets in Candida to reduce the chances of off-target effects often associated with broad-spectrum antifungal agents. Common targets in Candida include fungal cell wall, ergosterol biosynthesis to disrupt fungal membrane integrity and protein synthesis pathways. Current challenges in antifungal therapy include resistance to antifungal drug candidates, host immune reactions and drug- induced toxic effects. Mechanism for antifungal drug resistance comprises drug efflux pump, target modification and drug catabolism, biofilm formation. To overcome these challenges, drug discovery approaches concentrate on quorum sensing and quorum quenching based anti-virulence and host-fungal interaction kinetics to improve treatment strategies. Future goals of anticandidal therapy would nano-based pharmacophores, immunotherapies, natural product-based antifungals and personalized medicine to minimize host reactions against drugs. Hence, in this paper, we will explore the importance of drug targets and the challenges in antifungal therapy.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/2017 Exploration of Actinobacteria for Multifaceted Applications: Lessons to Learn from the Genome, Proteome and Metabolome of Pristine Microbial Majority 2024-04-19T07:36:06+00:00 Sankar Lokesh Natarajan Dinesh R. Thamarai Selvi Sasikumar Pavithra Pazhani Saranraj Karuppiah Vijay karuppiahvijay@gmail.com <p>Actinobacteria are a diverse group of bacteria known for their prolific production of bioactive secondary metabolites. These metabolites have garnered significant attention in recent years due to their wide-ranging potential for biomedical applications. This review aims to provide an overview of actinobacterial metabolites and their significance in various aspects of biomedical research and applications. Actinobacterial metabolites are known for their diverse chemical structures and biological activities. They encompass a wide array of compounds, including antibiotics, anticancer agents, immunomodulators, and enzyme inhibitors. These metabolites have been instrumental in the development of numerous pharmaceuticals that have transformed the field of medicine. In the context of antibacterial research, actinobacterial metabolites have played a pivotal role in combating multidrug-resistant pathogens. Their potent antimicrobial properties have led to the discovery of antibiotics such as streptomycin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, which have been crucial in treating bacterial infections. This review highlights the diverse biomedical applications of actinobacterial metabolites, emphasizing their role in combating infectious diseases, cancer, drug discovery, and immunotherapy. The exploration of actinobacterial biodiversity and their metabolite diversity holds great promise for addressing current and emerging biomedical challenges. Furthermore, advancements in genomics, synthetic biology, and bioprocessing techniques are expected to enhance the production and utilization of actinobacterial metabolites for future biomedical innovations. Moreover, actinobacterial metabolites have shown potential in immunomodulation, opening avenues for the development of immunotherapies and vaccines. Compounds like teicoplanin and tacrolimus have been employed to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases and organ transplantation.</p> 2024-04-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/1999 Effect of Keeping Durations Prior to Processing of Bovine Blood on Its Proximate, Gross Energy and Amino Acid Compositions 2024-04-06T11:33:57+00:00 Eko P. M. Afolabi, K. D. kaydafl@yahoo.com Mbaba, E. N. Ekpo, U. E. Idio A. D <p>The study was conducted to investigate the effect of keeping durations prior to processing of bovine blood on its proximate composition, gross energy and amino acid profile. Slaughterhouse blood used for this research was obtained from Ntak Inyang Central Abattoir located in Itu Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The actual processing of fresh blood sample into blood meal took place at the Department of Animal Science Laboratory, University of Uyo, Annex. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used. The experiment had four (4) treatments designated as (T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub>), with each differing from one another in keeping durations. Treatment<sub>1</sub> contained blood processed after collection at 0 hour serving as the control, T<sub>2</sub> blood was processed after 2hours, T<sub>3</sub> blood was processed after 4 hours and T<sub>4</sub> blood was processed after 6 hours. Blood kept for (6 hours) prior to processing was observed to have a significantly higher values (P&lt;0.05) for crude protein (37.93%), crude fat (2.57%), crude fibre (0.25%), crude ash (7.91%), moisture (11.19%) and gross energy (2323Kcal/kg). The nitrogen free extract (NFE) values were also significantly, high (P&lt;0.05) as the keeping durations prior to blood processing increased. Similarly, amino acid profile for both essential (EAAS) and non essential (NEAAS) revealed that T<sub>4</sub> (6 hours) had higher values (P&lt;0.05) than other treatments. In specific terms, tryptophan (6.92%), Leucine (6.91%) and lysine (5.12%) for essential amino acids values were observed to be high in T<sub>4</sub> (6 hours) whereas arginine (5.98%) and glycine (4.10%) for non-essential amino acids also recorded high values. The significant variations in values of parameters (crude protein, gross energy and amino acid profile) as observed in T<sub>4</sub> (6 hours) might be due to the processing methods used in this study as well as the high moisture content potential of the blood meal. In conclusion, bovine blood meal processed after 6 hours of keeping duration is, therefore, recommended for end-users (farmers and feed millers), followed by T<sub>3</sub> (4 hours).</p> 2024-04-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/2002 Prevalence of Bacteria Associated with Mobile Phones of Inpatients in Some Hospitals in Ardo-Kola Metropolis, Nigeria 2024-04-08T12:21:00+00:00 Emmanuel Allahnanan Samuel Kennedy Banja Waetsi Nya Yusufu waetsinya@gmail.com Fred Grace Wayas <p>Mobile phones are carried everywhere thus coming in contact with various surfaces. Inpatients' mobile phones may contain potential nosocomial causing microbes to the inpatient, family members, and the general public. Thirty-two (32) inpatient phones were chosen at random from three study areas to see if they could function as formites and contain bacteria that could be transferred. First Referral Hospital Sunkani, Primary Healthcare Kofai and Lafiya clinic ATC) in Ardo Kola Local Government, Taraba State were the study area. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination on inpatients' phones and to identify bacterial isolates. A swab sample from each inpatient's phone (using a moist sterile swab), as well as a self-administered questionnaire, was retrieved. Samples were cultured in nutrient, blood and macConkey’s agar using the streak method, bacteria were identified using Gram staining and a few biochemical assays (indole, citrate utilization, catalase, oxidase, coagulase, and urease test). The overall prevalence of mobile phone contamination with one or more bacteria was 90.6 percent, with the most common bacteria isolates being <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (46.9%) and <em>Escherichia coli</em> (34.4%), and the least common bacteria isolates being <em>Klebsiella spp</em>. (12.5%) and <em>Enterococcus spp</em>. (12.5%). As a result, using various methods to control the growth of bacteria, such as restricting mobile phone use in hospitals and implementation of proper hand washing hygiene, is necessary to shed bacterial burden and reduce contamination.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/2014 Impact of Bat Guano Fertilizer on Soil Bacteria Community Structure and Antibiogram of Associated Bacteria: An Alert to Food Insecurity 2024-04-16T12:33:48+00:00 Ajuzieogu, C.A. ajuzieoguca@fuotuoke.edu.ng Nwankwo, U.G. Ikedianya, N. <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the impact of Bat guano fertilization on soil microbial community structure and antibiotic resistance pattern of recovered isolates.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Soil experiment with various Bat guano fertilized farmland soils.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Department of Microbiology, Renaissance University, Enugu State, Nigeria, between May, 2021 and July, 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of test soil samples were done following standard methods. Bacterial isolates were identified <em>via</em> an analytical profile index (API 20E) test kit, antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacterial species was ascertained using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The highest total culturable heterotrophic bacteria count recorded was from bat guano-fertilized soil (8.0 × 10<sup>5 </sup>CFU/g) relative to control (1.09 × 10<sup>5 </sup>CFU/g). Cultured isolates from bat guano-fertilized soils belonged to the genera <em>Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Hafnia, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Pleisiomonas, Pseudomonas</em> and <em>Aeromonas</em>, relative to the control which had <em>Aeromonas</em> and <em>Staphylococcus</em>. <em>Enterobacter </em>spp. and <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp<em>.</em> had the highest frequency of occurrence (18.4%) across the bat guano-fertilized soils. Bat guano also impacted the microbial structure of the soil, introducing potential enteric pathogens, pathogenic bacteria implicated in human and animal diseases and multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that four of the bacterial isolates (<em>Hafnia</em> <em>alvei</em>, <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>, <em>Pleisomonas</em> sp., and <em>Klebsiella</em> spp.) expressed multi-antibiotic resistance to Gentamycin, Cefuroxime, Chloramphenicol, Augmentin, Streptomycin, Septrin, Ofloxacin, Amoxicillin and Ampiclox. Multi-antibiotic resistance indexes of these bacteria were greater than the 0.2 threshold, suggesting the species originated from a potentially dangerous source (i.e. bat guano) and were likely introduced into the soils via faecal contamination (i.e. guano fertilization of soils).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The use of bat guano as organic fertilizer in agricultural lands pose health risks to farmers and consumers of foods (especially those eaten raw or slightly cooked) cultivated with them.This thus, alerts scientific community on the insecurity of food and human health posed by the use of bat guano fertilizer.</p> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.