Main Article Content
Medicinal values of plant based nematicides are more often attributed to the phytochemicals they contain. In vitro and screen house experiments were conducted to investigate the bio-nematicidal efficacy of alkaloids of J. curcas plant parts on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Efficacy of alkaloids was evaluated against nematode juveniles (J2s) after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at 0, 5 and 10 ml in in vitro conditions. Although, nematode mortality was highest (99.3 %) after 72 h incubation period at 10 ml rate of application, there was no statistical difference with mortality ( 98.9 %) obtained at 5 ml. Under screen house conditions Alkaloids at 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 ml were applied to potted okra plants inoculated with 1,200 infective (J2) larvae of M. incognita. These were later laid out in a 3x6 factorial experiments arranged in Completely Randomized Design with five replications. Results showed that alkaloids applied at 5 ml /pot significantly (P=0.05) reduced root-galls and increased plant growth parameters on application of root and seed alkaloids than the untreated control in 2019 and 2020 years of study respectively. Root and seed alkaloids also increased Okra pod weight by 71 % (4.02 g) and 67 % (4.26 g) in both years. Leaf alkaloids gave least performance in growth and yield of Okra. These findings elucidated the potential of J. curcas alkaloids as possible good alternative for the control of root-knot nematode on okra. There is however, need for further studies in identifying new classes of bio-pesticides from natural plants to replace the synthetic chemicals used at present.
Agu CM. Effect of Organic Manure Types on Root-Gall Nematode Disease and African Yam Bean Yield. Plant Science Research. 2008b;1(1):17-19.
Salim HA, Salman IS, Majeed II, Hussein HH. Evaluation of some plant extracts for their nematicidal properties against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne sp. Journal of Genetic and Environmental Resources conservation. 2016;4(3):241-244.
Nico AI, Jiménez-Dìaz RM, Castillo P: Control of root-knot by composted agro-industrial wastes in potting mixtures. Crop Prot., 2004 23: 581 – 587. DOI: 10.1016/j.
Sasanelli N, Greco N. Formulation of a model to relate nematode populations with exposure times to a range of temperatures. Acta Hortic. 2000;532:131 – 135.
Tamietti G, Valentino G. Effectiveness of soil solarization against soil borne plant pathogens and weeds in Piedmont (Northern Italy). Acta Hortic. 2000;532:151 – 156.
Tjamos EC, Polymnia, PA, Tjamos SE. Implementation of soil solarization in Greece: Conclusions and suggestions. Crop Protection. 2000;19: 843 – 846.
Ciccarese F, Paciolla C, Sasanelli N, Ciccarese A, De Leonardis S, Sciacovelli M. Can the ozone be used in the control of plant diseases? In Abstracts of 10th Annual Congress FISV (Federazione Italiana Scienza della Vita), Riva del Garda, Italy. 2008;18.
Agu CM, Nwagbaga AC, Uwandu CG, Onoh P, Mbuka CA, Ojiako PO, Ndulue NK, Ogwudire VI. Effect of Jatropha Curcas on Root-gall Nematode Disease and the Consequent Proximate Composition of Okra. Bionature Journal of India, 2013;33(2):59-62.
Adesiyan SO, Caveness FE, Adeniji MO, Fawole B. Nematode Pests of Tropical crops Heinemann Educational books (Nig.) PLC. 2000;1-24.
Uma MuhdSani. Phytochemial Screening and antidiabetic Effects of Extracts of the Seeds of Citrulluslanatus in Alloxan induced Diabetiuc Albino Mice. J. App. Pharm Sci. 2015;5(03):051-054.
Devappa RK, Makkar HPS, Becker K. Jatropha nematicidality- a review Journal of Nematicidalology and Environmental Health, Part B, 2010;13:476-507.
Ogwudire VE, Agu CM, Nwokeji EM, Cookey CO, Phyto-toxicity of .Jatropha curcas L. Root Extracts on the hatchability of Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Futo Journal Series (FUTOJNLS). e-ISSN:2476-8456, p-ISSN:2467-8325. 2019a;5(2):26-33.
Ogwudire VE, Agu CM, Ojiako FO, Cookey CO, Nwokeji CM. Nematicidal Effects of .Jatropha curcas L. Root Extracts for the control of Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita. International Journal of Agric and Rural developemet. (IJARD). 2019b; 22(2):4468-4473.
Claudius-Cole AO. Comparative Effect of Rotylenchulusr eniformisand Meloidogyne incognita on the Productivity of okra in Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2018;12(9):20-25.
Dimaandal LG, Antiseptic Property of the Alkaloid Content from Ethanol Extract of SamaneaSaman (Acacia) Leaves. Unpublished Masters Thesis BSU, Batanges City; 2003.
Agu CM, Ogbuji RO. Soybean resistance to the root-gall nematode, as influenced by Potassium nutrition. East African Agricultural Journal. 1996;66(3):273-276.
Wang K, Chao L, Hao L, Jianmei X, Weibo S, Ligang Z. Nematicidal activity of the alkaloids from Macleaya cordata against certain nematodes. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(44):5925-5929.
DOI: 10.5897/AJAR11.1940 ISSN 1991-637X .
Kuljanabhagavad T, Wink M, Biological activities and Chemistry of Saponins from Chenopodium qyinoa Willd. Phytochemical Review. 2009;8:473-490.
Feyisa B, Lencho A, Selvaraj T, Getaneh G. Evaluation of some botanicals and Trichoderma harzianum against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chit wood) in tomato. Journal of Entomology and Nematology 2016; 8(2):11-18.
Emeasor KC, Emosairue SO, Mmegwa VV. Nematicidalological Assessment of Some Nigeria Seed Powders against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus Zeamais. African Journal of Applied Zool. Environ. Biol. 2002;4:82-86.
Ibraham MI, Ashiru S, Sani I, Shehu K, Aliero AA, Aliyu RU. Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Mimosa Pudica Plant Extracts (Touch Me Not). American Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2014;2:8-16.
Oyedeji O, Oziegbe M. Taiwo FO, Antibacterial, Anitfungal and Phytochemical Analysis of Crude Extracts from the Leaves of Ludwigiaabyssinica A. Rich and Ludwigiadecurrens Walter. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011;5(7): 1192-1199.
Ihejirika GO, Nwufo MI, Duruigbo CI, Onwerenadu EU, Obilo, OP, Onuoha R, Ogbede KO. Effects of Plant Extracts and Plant Density on the Severity of Leaf Spot Disease of Groundnut in Imo State. Journal of Plant Sciences. 2006;1(4):374-377.
Ohazurike NC, Omuh MO, Emeribe EO. The use of seedextracts of the physic nut (Jatropha curcasL.) in the control of maize weevil (Sitophilus zea maiseM.) in stored maize grains (ZeamaysL.). Global Journal of Agricultural Science. 2003;2:86– 88.
Ahuchaogu CE, Ojiako FO, Kabeh JD. Evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. an Extracts in the control of some field .insect pests of cowpea. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. 2014;3(3):136-141.
Agu CM, Mbuka CO, Ogwudire VE. Influence of root-gall nematode on mucilaginous property and nutrient composition of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Bionature, 2009. 29 (2): 73-77.
Udo IA. Infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita on elite and local cultivars of tomato in humid tropics. M.Sc Desertation, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2004.
Agu CM. Effects of Intercropping on Root-gall Nematode Disease on Soybean. Plant Sciences Research. 2008a;1(1)20-28.
Sasanelli N, D’addabbo T, Convrtini G, Ferri D. Soil Phytoparasitic Nematodes Suppression and Changes of Chemical Properties Determined by Waste Residues from Olive Oil Extraction. In: Proceedings of 12th ISCO Conference. 2002. Beijing, China. III: 588 – 592