The Circadian Clock: An Essential Biological Rhythm

Main Article Content

Yakubu, Ojochenemi Ejeh
Umaru, John Isaac
Udeh, Sylvester Michael Chukwuka
Ale, Ebenezer Morayo
Iorkuse, Terhemba, Ezekiel

Abstract

Life existence on earth is based on day/ night time cycle. Circadian rhythms (CR) are essential endogenous autonomous oscillators of physiological activities resulting from 24- hours day/night cycles, which allows organisms to adapt to the fluctuating environment. The pivotal pacemaker of the CR is the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) which plays pivotal roles in regulating peripheral tissue clocks enhancing metabolic activities and practically every physiological activities in the body of living organisms through the release of endogenous regulatory substances. An unaltered circadian rhythm is a way to good health, programming the array of physiological activities in the body in a chronological/orderly manner. This review appraises the operation of the biological clock as it equips the body of organisms to perform daily routines in a healthy way under the influence of external cues such as food, arousal stimuli and light. The efficiency of many biochemical processes depends on a healthy circadian rhythm.

Keywords:
Circadian rhythms, Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, zeitgebers, oscillator, entrainment, stimuli, physiological activities, day/night time cycle

Article Details

How to Cite
Ejeh, Y. O., Isaac, U. J., Chukwuka, U. S. M., Morayo, A. E., & Ezekiel, I. T. (2022). The Circadian Clock: An Essential Biological Rhythm. Asian Journal of Research in Biosciences, 4(2), 15-20. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/1553
Section
Review Articles

References

Psych B, The sleep wake cycle: circadian rhythms- biological clocks. Youtube:Available: https//www.patrroen.com/psychboost, 2019.

Buhr ED, Yoo SH, Takahashi JS, Temperature as a universal resetting cue for mammalian circadian oscillators, Science. X. 2019;330:379–385.

Hughes ME, Hogenesch JB, Kornacker K. JTK_CYCLE: an efficient nonparametric algorithm for detecting rhythmic components in genome-scale data sets, J. Biol. Rhythms. 2010;25:372–380.

Honma1 S, The mammalian circadian system: a hierarchical multi‑oscillator structure for generating circadian rhythm, The Journal of Physiological Sciences. 2018;68:207–219.

Focus media. Molecular Mechanism Controlling the Circadian Rhythms; 2018.

Li S, Shui K, Zhang Y, Lv Y, Deng W, Ullah S, et al., CGDB: a database of circadian genes in eukaryotes, Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:D397–D403.

Mouland JW, Stinchcombe AR., Forger DB, Brown TM., Lucas RJ, Responses to spatial contrast in the mouse suprachiasmatic nuclei, Curr. Biol. 2017;27:1633–1640.e3.

Pilorz V, Tam SK, Hughes S, Pothecary CA, Jagannath A, Hankins MW. et al. Melanopsin regulates both sleep-promoting and arousal promoting responses to light, PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002482.

Astiz M, Heyde I, Oster H, Mechanisms of communication in the mammalian circadian timing system, Int. J. Mol. Sci, 2019;20:E343.

Mohawk JA., Green CB, Takahashi JS, Central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2012;35:445–462.

Satchin P, Health lies in Health Circadian habits. Youtoube: https//www.ted.com/tedx, 2017.

Tahara Y, Shiraishi T, Kikuchi Y, Haraguchi A, Kuriki D, Sasaki H. et al., Entrainment of the mouse circadian clock by sub-acute physical and psychological stress. Sci. Rep. 2015;5: 11417.

Sasaki H., Hattori Y, Ikeda Y, Kamagata M, Iwami S, Yasuda S, et al., Forced rather than voluntary exercise entrains peripheral clocks via acorticosterone/noradrenaline increase in PER2:LUC mice. Sci. Rep. 2016;6:27607.

Golombek DA, Rosenstein RE, Physiology of circadianentrainment, Physiol. Rev, 2010; 90:1063–1102.

Pendergast JS, Yamazaki S, The mysterious food-entrainableoscillator: insights from mutant and engineered mouse models, J. Biol. Rhythms. 2018;33:458–474.

Oike H, Oishi K, Kobori M, Nutrients, clock genes, and chrononutrition, Curr. Nutr. Rep, 2014;3:204–212.

Hirota T, Okano T, Kokame K, Shirotani-Ikejima H, Miyata T, Fukada Y, Glucose down-regulates Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels and induces circadian gene expression in cultured Rat-1 fibroblasts, J. Biol. Chem, 2002;277:44244–44251.

Chavan R, Feillet C, Costa SS, Delorme JE, Okabe T, Ripperger JA et al., Liver-derived ketone bodies are necessary for food anticipation, Nat. Commun, 2016;7:10580.

Enoki R, Oda Y, Mieda M, Ono D, Honma S, Honma K, Synchronous circadian voltage rhythms with asynchronous calcium rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, Proc Natl Acad Sci, 2017;114:E2476–E2485

Refinetti R, Entrainment of circadian rhythm by ambient temperature cycles in mice. J. Biol. Rhythms. 2010;25:247–256.

Cheon S, Park N, Cho S, Kim K, Glucocorticoid-mediated Period2induction delays the phase of circadian rhythm, Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6161–6174.

Joshua F, Michel C, The Underground Summer; 2008.

Vetter C, Juda M, Dieter L, Andrease W, Roenneberg T, Blue-enriched office light competes with natural light as a zeitgeber, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2011;37(5): 437-435.