The Impact of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Leaves Extract on Some Biochemical Markers, Organ and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chickens in Nsukka- Nigeria

Main Article Content

C. Ezenwosu
C. O. Okeke
N. S. Machebe

Abstract

The impact of pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaves extract on some biochemical markers; organ and carcass traits of broiler chickens in Nsukka- Nigeria were investigated. Searching for a non-conventional and less competitive plant feed sources such as pawpaw leaf extract to serve as an alternative in poultry nutrition will solve the problem of scarcity and high cost of convectional feed sources facing poultry production today. One hundred and fifty day old Anak broiler strains of mixed sex at two weeks of age were used for the study. The birds after stabilizing them together for two weeks were weighed and assigned to five dietary treatments with 30 birds per treatment in a completely randomized experimental design. Each treatment had 5 replicates with 6 birds per replicate. Treatments were as follows: WV (control) = water + vitalyte, PLE20= Water + 20 ml pawpaw leaf extract, PLE40=Water +40 ml pawpaw leaf extract, PLE60= Water +60ml pawpaw leaf extract, PLE80= Water+80 ml pawpaw leaf extract. The birds were fed ad libitum. The following serum biochemical indices were investigated: triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorous, glucose, albumin, serum total protein, creatinine, urea, globulin and Cholesterol. Statistical analysis of the results of the serum biochemical indices showed that pawpaw leaf extract caused high (P<0.01) significant effect on triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, calcium, and serum total protein values among the treatment groups, while the values of phosphorous, albumin, creatinine and cholesterol were also significant (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the values of urea, low density lipoprotein and globulin among the treatments. Serum biochemical indices (triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, calcium, serum total protein, phosphorous, albumin, creatinine and cholesterol) values significantly increased as the   level of pawpaw leaf extract increased in the water. Carcass and organ parameters investigated (thigh, shank, drumstick, breast, head, neck, wing eviscerated, dressed, heart, liver, lung, kidney, provetriculus, small intestine, crop, gizzard and spleen weights) were not significant  (p<0.05, p<0.01). In conclusion, pawpaw leaf extract had significant effects only on the serum biochemical indices of the birds, it was therefore, recommended for use in broiler production but with lower dose of the extract because of the increased value of cholesterol recorded among the treatment groups.

Keywords:
Pawpaw leaf extract, serum, organ, carcass and broiler chicken, biochemical

Article Details

How to Cite
Ezenwosu, C., Okeke, C. O., & Machebe, N. S. (2022). The Impact of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Leaves Extract on Some Biochemical Markers, Organ and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chickens in Nsukka- Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Biosciences, 4(2), 7-14. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/1545
Section
Original Research Article

References

Sugiharto S. A review on fungal fermented cassava pulp as a cheap alternative feedstuff in poultry ration. Journal of World's Poultry Research. 2019;9:01-06.

Ugochukwu NH, Babady NE, Cobourne M, Gasset SR. The effect of Gongronema latifolia leaf extract on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress of hepatocytes of diabetic rats. Journal of Biological Sciences. 2003;28:1-5. Received 1 August 2010 Accepted 11 January 2011 Published 1 April 2011

Ladokun AO, Obe AA, Oso, AO, Oke OE, Abiona JA. Performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens as influenced by fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) leaf extract. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science. 2016;18:42-48.

Alabi O, Ayoola M, Akinoso O. Performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens at finisher stage to oral supplementation with fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract. Journal of Central European Agriculture. 2017;18:646-656.

Nworgu FC, Ogungbenro SA, Solesi KS. Performance and some blood chemistry indices of broiler chicken served Fluted Pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) leaves extract supplement. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences. 2007;2(1):90-98. Available:http://ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/viewFile/56911/45319.

Galib AMA, Noor MW. Comparative study on diet supplementation with a mixture of herbal plants dandelion as a source of prebiotics on the performance of broilers Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2010;9(1):67. Available:http://www.pjbs.org/pjnonline/fin1620.pdf.

Fallah R, Rezaei H. Effect of dietary prebiotic and acidifier supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum biochemical parameters of broilers. J. Cell Anim. Biol. 2013;7:21-24.

Oloruntola OD. serum biochemistry and histological studies in growing rabbits fed diets supplemented with Mucuna pruriens leaf meal. Arch Current Res Int. 2018;15(1):1-10.

Ikpeme EV, Nta AL, Ekaluo UB, Udensi O. Phytochemical phytochemical screening and haematological evaluation of Parkia biglobosa and Gonglonema latifolium. J. Basic Appl. Res. 2012;2(3):2599-2606.

Essien JP, Ebong GA, Akpan EJ. Antioxidant and antitussive properties of Gongronema latifolium leaves used locally for the treatment of fowl cough in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science Environment and Management. 2007; 11(4):47–50. Available:http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?ja07092.

Gamaniel KS, Akah PA. Analysis of the gastrointestinal relaxing effect of the stem extract of Gongronema latifolia. Phytomedicine. 1996;2(4):293-296. Organic Facts.Net; 2020. Available:https://www.organicfacts.net Healthline; 2018. Available:client=opera&q=Organic+Facts.Net+2020&sourceid=opera&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8

Kadiri O, Olawoye B. Vernonia amygdalina: An underutilized vegetable with nutraceutical potentials – A review. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology. 2016;4(9):763-768.

Nath DD, Rahman MM, Akter F. Effects of tulsi, black pepper and cloves extract as a growth promoter in broilers. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2012;10:33-39.

Dharmarathna SLCA, Wickramasinghe S, Waduge RN, Rajapakse RPVJ, Kularatne SAM. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2013;3(9):720-724.

Sarker EH, Khokon JU, Rahma MA. Comparative efficacy of probiotic papaya leaf leaves and vitamin AD3E as a growth promoter on broilers. International Journal of Natural and Social Sciences. 2014;1:26-32.

Maisarah AM, Asmah R, Fauziah O. Proximate analysis, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different parts of Carica papaya. J Nutr Food Sci. 2014;4:2.

Okonkwo WI, Akubuo CO. Trombe wall system for poultry brooding. Int. J. Poultry Sci. 2007;6:125-130.

Ingle KP, Deshmukh AG, Padole DA, Dudhare MS, Moharil MP, Khelurkar VC. Phytochemicals: Extraction methods, identification, and detection of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2017;6:32–6.

Azwanida NN. A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength, and limitation. Med Aromat Plants. 2015;4:196.

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis (13th eds). Washington D.C; 1990.

Ochei J, Kolhatkar A. Medical laboratory science theory and practice, 6th edition, McGraw – Hill Publishing Company Limited, New York, USA. 2007;1338.

SPSS for Windows 2001 Standard Version (8), SPSS INC. London.

Duncan DB. New multiple range test. Biometrics. 1955;11:1-42.

Obi IU. Statistical methods of detecting differences between treatments means an research methodology issues in laboratory and field experiments.2ndEd.Express Pub. Ltd. Enugu. 2002;13-21.

Liukkonen-Anttila J. Nutritional and genetic adaptation of gallitorns birds: Implications for Hand Rearing and Resticking. Acanic Dissertation, Faculty of Sciences, University of Oulu Yilopisto, Finland; 2001.

Ogbuewu IP, Okoli IC, Iloeje MU. Serum biochemical evaluation and organ weight characteristics of buck rabbits fed graded levels of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal diets. Vet Online International. 2009;3-10.

Obiakaonu HO, Okoli IC, Opara MN, Okoro VMO, Ogbuewu IP, Etuk EB, Udedibie ABI. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of starter broilers fed leaf meal of neem (Azadirachta indica). Journal of Agriculture Technology. 2012;8(1):71-79.

Muhammad KB, Muhammad A, Shahid Ur-R, Sadia R, Muhammad QB, Sayeda M, Madiha T. Effects of Carica papaya leaf extract on blood hematology, serum biochemistry and immune response of broilers. Adv. Life Sci. 2020;7(4):252-256.

Banjoko OJ, Adebayo IA, Osho IB, Olumide MD, Fagbiye OA, Ajayi OA, Akinboye OE. Evaluation of varying levels of Carica papaya leaf meal on growth, carcass, haematological parameters and its use as anticoccidial for broler chicken. Nigeria J. Anim. Sci. 2002;22(3):229- 241. (ISSN:1119-4308)

Ayodele SO, Oloruntola OD, Agbeke JO. Effect of diet containing Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal on performnace and digestibility of weaner rabbits. World Rabbit Sci. 2016;24:201-206.