Multiple Insecticide Resistance and possible Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Greenhouse Culture

Full Article - PDF

Published: 2022-03-25

Page: 68-76

Hanan Salah El-Din Taha Diab *

Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is a series pest in Egypt plantations and control require some information to be effective. Toxicity and biochemical tests were completed on greenhouse, susceptible and resistant strains reared in laboratory. Results confirmed that the toxicity arrangement of insecticide was carbosulfan was the most effective, then imidacloprid, α-cypermethrin and profenophos was the least effective on the susceptible, greenhouse and in resistant strains. Resistance ratio values refer to slight resistance developed through short time of selection, RR for resistant strains ranged between 1.3 to 2.4 times for carbosulfan and α-cypermethrin respectively and does not exceed. The biochemical measurements of enzyme activities exhibited small decreases or increases in treated aphid body homogenate than untreated. Non-Linear regression analyses revealed strong relationship between enzyme activities and pesticide LC50s. There were negative correlations between most of enzyme activities and insecticide resistance. Determination of resistance mechanisms in M. persicae resistance according to the biochemical evaluation revealed higher acetylcholinesterase metabolism or esterase elevations found in the resistant strains. The LC50 values exceeding the registered field dose. Synergism experiments suggested that P450 monooxygenases and detoxification enzymes were involved in resistance to these insecticides. Therefore, the strong resistance phenotypes, with accumulation of multiple resistance mutations, over expression of P450s and other detoxification genes in the same field population presumably exist.

Keywords: Insecticide, resistance, aphid, biochemical, enzymes, mechanisms, colorimetric, evaluations

How to Cite

El-Din Taha Diab, H. S. (2022). Multiple Insecticide Resistance and possible Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Greenhouse Culture. Asian Journal of Research in Biosciences, 4(1), 68–76. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Blackman RL. Life-cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) (Hom.:Aphididae) in different parts of the world, in relation to genotype and environment. Bull. Entomol. Res. 1974;63:595-607.

Bass C, Puinean AM, Zimmer CT, Denholm I, Field LM, Foster SP, Gutbrod O, Nauen R.; Slater R, Williamson MS. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae. Insect Biochem. and Molecular Biol. 2014;51:41-51

Van Emden HF, Harrington R. Aphid as crop pests (book 2006). Printed and bound in the UK by Cromwell Press, Trowbridge; 2006.

Georghiou GP, Taylor CE. Genetic and biological influences in evolution of insecticide resistance. J. Econ. Entomol. 1977;70:319-323.

Wheelock CE, Miller JL, Miller MJ, Phillips BM, Huntley SA, Gee SJ, Tjeerdema DS, Hammock, BD. Use of carboxylesterase activity to remove pyrethroid-associated toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca in toxicity identification evaluations. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25(4):973–984.

Raffa KF, Priester TM. Synergists as research tools and control agents in agriculture. J, Agric, Entomol. 1985;2(1):27-45.

Roush RT, Tabashnik B. Pesticide Resistance in Arthropods. Chapman and Hall, New York; 1990.

Foster SP, Denholm I, Rison JL, Portillo HE, Margaritopoulisd J, Slatere R. Susceptibility of standard clones and European field populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to the novel anthranilic diamide insecticide cyantraniliprole. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:629–633.

Puinean AM, Foster SP, Oliphant L, Denholm L, Field LM, Millar NS, Williamson MS, Bass C. Amplification of a cytochrome P450 gene is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae. PLoS Genetique/ 2010;6(6):e1000999.

Chandrasena D, Difonzo C, Byrne A. An Aphid-Dip Bioassay to Evaluate Susceptibility of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to Pyrethroid, Organophosphate, and Neonicotinoid Insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 2011;104(4):1357-1363.

Simpson DR, Bulland DL, Linquist DA. A semi-microtechnique for estimation of cholinesterase activity in boll weevils. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1964;57:367-371.

Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB. Glutathione S-transferase. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Biol. chem., I974;249:7130-7139.

Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of proteins utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal.Biochem. I976;72:248-254.

Abbott WS. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol. 1925;18:265-267.

Casida JE. Mixed-function oxidase involvement in the biochemistry of insecticide synergists. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1970;18:753-772.

Sun L, Zhou X, Zhang J, Gao X. Polymorphisms in a Carboxylesterase Gene between Organophosphate-Resistant and -Susceptible Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. Econ. Entomol. 2005;98(4):1325-1332.

Srigiriraju L, Semtner PJ, Anderson TD, Bloomquist JR. Monitoring for MACE resistance in the tobacco-adapted form of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the eastern United States. Crop Protection. 2010;29:197-202.

Das D, Dutta P. Status of insecticide resistance and detoxifying enzyme activity of Aedes albopictus population in Sonitpur district of Assam, India. International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2014;1(4):35-41.

Chareonviriyaphapa T, Golendab CF, Roberts DR, Andrec RG. Identification of Elevated Esterase Activity in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Population of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann. Science Asia 1999;25:153-156.

Dossa CSG, Zimmer TC, Nauen R. Characterisation of Insecticide Resistance in Clonal Cultures of Myzus Persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Obtained from an Italian Field Population in 2010. Tropentag. 2012:19-21.

Sun YP. Dynamics of Insect Toxicology-A mathematical and graphical evaluation of the relationship between insect toxicity and rates of penetration and detoxification of insecticides. J. Econ. Emomol. 1968;61:949-955.

Wilkinson CF. Effects of Synergists on the Metabolism and Toxicity of Anticholinesterases. Bull Wld Hlth Org. 1971;4:171-190.

Fukuto TR, Metcalf RL, Winton MY, Roberts PA. The Synergism of substituted phenyl N- methyl carbamates by piperonyl butoxide. Journal of Economic Entomology. 1962;55:341-345.

Field LM, Williamson MS, Moores GD, Devonshire AL. Cloning and analysis of the esterase genes conferring insecticide resistance in the peachpotato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Biochemical Journal. 1993;294:569–574.

Fenton B, Woodford JA, Malloch G. Analysis of clonal diversity of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in Scotland, UK and evidence for the existence of a predominant clone. Mol Ecol. 1998;7:1475–1487.

Lai, T. Li, J. and Su, J. (2011). Monitoring of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to chlorantraniliprole in China. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 101:198–205.

Gong, Y-J; Wang, Z-H; Shi, B-C; Kang, Z-J; Zhu, L; Jin, G-H; and Wei, S-J (2013). Correlation between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Journal of Insect Science 13:135.

Devonshire AL, Moores GD. A Carboxylesterase with Broad Substrate Specificity Causes Organophosphorus, Carbamate and Pyrethroid Resistance in Peach-Potato Aphids (Myzus persicae). Pesticide Biochemistry And Physiology. 1982;18:235-246.

Finney DJ. Probit Analysis. Cambridge University Press, London; 1971.

Van Asperen K. A study of house fly esterase by means of sensitive colourimetric method. J. Insect physiol. I962;8:401-416.