Main Article Content
The Study was conducted at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to Isolate and Identify the Azospirillium zeae from Acacia tortilis. Useful bacteria associated with the plant roots have the potential to alleviate the burden of using costly and harmful agrochemicals in harsh environments. Finding of novel and appropriate bacteria for enhancing plant growth is among the main primary challenges involved in achieving the agronomic application of plant beneficial bacteria. A bacterium isolated from the rhizospheric soil of the legume Acacia tortilis was described based on several biochemical, morphological and molecular analyses. The bacterium H1P is motile, negative in biotin medium, no growth in 3% NaCl, negative D-Ribose, positive D- glucose. Identification of the isolate via 16s rDNA via the BLASTn revealed that the isolate is an Azospirillum species with a 96.9% similarity to Azospirillum zeae H1P. Phylogenetic analyses with MEGA6 software showed that the isolate shares an ancestor with Azospirillum zeae, eventually branching off into a separate taxon. Azospirillum zeae isolated from Acacia tortilis it is considered first report.
Tarrand JJ, Kreig NR, Do¨bereiner J. A taxonomic study of the Spirillum lipoferum group, with descriptions of a new genus, Azospirillum gen. nov., and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov. Can J Microbiol. 1978;24:967–980.
Maroniche GA, García JE, Salcedo F, Creus CM. Molecular identification of Azospirillum spp.: Limitations of 16S rRNA and qualities of rpoD as genetic markers. Microbiological Research. 2017;195:1-10.
Duarte CFD, Cecato U, Biserra TT, Mamédio D, Galbeiro S. Azospirillum spp. in grasses and forages. Review. Rev Mex Cienc Pecu. 2020;11(1):223-240.
Suliman KL, Barakah FN, Assaeed AM. Structural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in three acacia species of different sizes in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Biosciences. 2017; 10:308-318.
Lin SY, Hameed A, Liu YC, Hsu YH, Lai WA, Shen FT, Young CC. Azospirillum soli sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from agriculture soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015;65:4601–4607.
Saikia SP, Bora D, Goswami A, Mudoi KD and Gogoi A. A review on the role of Azospirillum in the yield improvement of non leguminous crops. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2013;6:1085-1102.
Lin SY, Shen FT, Young LS, Zhu ZL, Chen WM, Young CC. Azospirillum formosense sp. nov., a diazotroph from agricultural soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62(Pt 5): 1185-1190.
Ayyaz K, Zaheer A, Rasul G, Mirza MS. Isolation and identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of plant growth-promoting azospirilla from the rhizosphere of wheat, Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2016;47(3):542-550.
Usha DK, Kanimozhi K. Isolation and characterization of saline tolerant Azospirillum strains from paddy field of Thanjavur district. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2011;2:239-245.
Xie CH, Yokota A. Azospirillum oryzae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the roots of the rice plant Oryza sativa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2005; 55:1435-1438.
Narendran RR, Begum SM, Aravindan K. Molecular Identification of Azotobacter chroococcum isolated from different wastes. J. Microbiol. Biotech. Res. 2016;6: 22-26.
Chari RD, Reddy RS, Trimaurtulu S. Screening and characterization of diazotrophic bacteria isolates for plant growth promoting properties. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;4(9):704-710.
Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 1987;4:406-425.
Tamura K, Nei M, Kumar S. Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA). 2004;101:11030-11035.
Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2013;30.
Yasir M, Azhar E, Khan I, Bibi F, Baabdullah R, Al-Zahrani IA, Al- Ghamdi AK. Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in south-western highlands of Saudi Arabia, Bio Med Central Microbiology. 2015;15: 65.
Peng GH, Wang G, Zhang W, Hou Y, Liu ET, Wang, Tan Z. Azospirillum melinis sp. nov., a group of diazotrophs isolated from tropical molasses grass. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2006;56:1263-1271.
Okon Y, Labandera-Gonzalez CA. Agronomic applications of- Azospirillum: An evaluation of 20 years worldwide field inoculation. Soil Biol Biochem. 1994; 26(12):1591–1601.
Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT. The proteobacteria (PART C): The alpha-, beta-, delta-, and epsilonproteobacteria. Garrity GM. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2005;1059- 1144.
Hossain MM, Akter S, Hasan MM, Hasan A, Uddin KR, Parvin A, Rahman SB. Nitrogen fixing efficiency and physiological characteristics of Azospirillum isolates from the paddy fields of North Bengal. Jahangirnagar University Journal of Biological Sciences. 2016;3(1):47-53.
Reis VM, Baldani VLD, Baldani JI. Isolation, identification and biochemical characterization of Azospirillum spp. and other nitrogen fixing bacteria. In: Cassán FD, Okon Yand Creus CM (Eds.), Handbook for Azospirillum: Technical Issues and Protocols. Springer Inter-national Publishing, Switzerland. 2015;3-26.
Mehnaz S, Weselowski B, Lazarovits G. Azospirillum zeae sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of Zea mays. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007;57(12):2805–2809.
Mehnaz S, Lazarovits G. Inoculation effects of Pseudomonas putida, Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, and Azospirillum lipoferum on corn plant growth under greenhouse conditions. Microb Ecol. 2006;51(3):326–335.
Mehnaz S, Weselowski B, Lazarovits G. Azospirillum zeae sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of Zea mays. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2007;57(12):2805-2809.
Alexandre G. Chemotaxis in azospirillum. In: Cassán FD, Okon Y and Creus CM (Eds.), Handbook for Azospirillum: Technical Issues and Protocols. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland. 2015;101-114.