Optimization of Biogas Production from Cow Dung using Response Surface Methodology

Main Article Content

Ibrahim Khalil Abubakar
Aminu Ibrahim
Yusuf Y. Muhammad


Biogas is produced through anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. Hydrolysis, the first step of anaerobic digestion, is rate limiting due to the presence of complex polymers in biomass which results in long retention period and low efficiency. Pretreatment is a process in which the organic waste is made ready for microbial attack before entering the anaerobic digester in order to encourage faster digestion and improvement of yield. This research was conducted on the ultrasonic pretreatment of cow dung for production of biogas, where Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to achieve the optimum sonication time, slurry ratio and retention time. 10 experimental runs were developed according to Central Composite Design with different set up conditions to observe the Responses, i.e., volumes of biogas produced across 21 days. 30 runs were further generated from the responses in order to optimize the retention time (days) for biogas production. This was achieved with the aid of a software package (Design Expert Quadratic models were developed for the responses and a 3D response surface plot was obtained to analyze the effect of the variables and their interactions to determine their optimum levels. The numerical optimization results gave a sonication time of 25 minutes, slurry ratio of 1.85 and retention time of 18 days. Under these conditions, the predicted maximum volume of biogas production was 18.97 ml. The validation of this prediction was tested, and the volume of biogas produced under same conditions was 17.772 ml, which confirmed the adequacy of the predicted model as only a 6.75% error was recorded. Hence, the optimum sonication time, slurry ratio and retention time were achieved for maximum biogas production from cow dung.

Biogas production, ultrasonic pretreatment, cow dung, optimization, response surface methodology

Article Details

How to Cite
Abubakar, I. K., Ibrahim, A., & Muhammad, Y. Y. (2021). Optimization of Biogas Production from Cow Dung using Response Surface Methodology. Asian Journal of Research in Biosciences, 3(2), 14-20. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/AJORIB/article/view/1047
Original Research Article


Onwuliri FC, Onyimba IA, Nwaukwu IA. Generation of biogas from cow dung. Bioremediation and Biodegradation. 2013; 18:2–4.

Nkoi B, Lebele-alawa BT, Odobeatu B. Design and fabrication of a modified portable biogas digester for renewable cooking-gas production. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 2018;3(3):21-29.

Onuoha SN, Unuigbe OM, Suleiman IA. and Chukuwendu UM. Design, Fabrication and evaluation of bio-digester for generating bio-gas and bio-fertiliser for auchi polytechnic demonstration farm. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. 2019;11: 66–75.

Montgomery L, Gunther B. Pretreatment of feedstock for enhanced biogas production. In: IEA Bioenergy. Ireland: IEA Bioenergy. 2014;1-20.

Baredar P, Suresh S, Kumar A, Krishnakumar P. A review on enhancement of biogas yield by pre-treatment and addition of additives. MATEC Web of Conferences. EDP Sciences. 2016;62:06002.

Pilli,S. Bhunia P, Yan S, LeBlanc RJ, Tyagi RD, Surampalli RY. Ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge: A Review. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2011;18(1): 1-18.

Maghsoudy N, Aberoomand P, Mohammad A, Tehrani S, Waqif S, Kambiz H. Biosynthesis of Ag and Fe Nanoparticles using Erodium cicutarium; study , optimization , and Modeling of the Antibacterial Properties Using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry. 2019;9(3): 203–216.

Sajeena B.B, Jose PP, Madhu G. Optimization of process parameters affecting biogas production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste via anaerobic digestion. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering. 2014;8(1):43–48.

Giwa A, Giwa SO. Property models and reactive distillation processes. International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research. 2013; 1(3):446–476.

Abd Rahman MN. Modelling Of Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) Process on Cutting Tool Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). PhD Thesis (Unpublished), Coventary University, Nigeria; 2009.

Liu J, Wang J. A multi-parameter optimization model for the evaluation of shale gas recovery enhancement. Energies. 2018;11(3):654.

Chun WC, Jamaludin NFM, Zainol N. Optimization of biogas production from poultry manure wastewater in 250 ml flasks. Jurnal Teknologi. 2015;75(1):275–285.

Stat-Ease. Handbook for Experimenters; Version 11.00. East Hennepin Ave, Suite 480, Minneapolis, MN. 2018;55413.

Karuppiah T, Azariah EV. Biomass pretreatment for enhancement of biogas production, In: Biogas. Tirunelveli, India; 2019.
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82088

Asikong BE, Idire SO, Tiku DR. Microorganisms associated with biogas production using vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis) Wastes, Banana Peel and Pig Dung as Substrates. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2016; 16(3):1–12.

Emeko HA, Olugbogi AO, Betiku E. Appraisal of artificial neural network and response surface methodology in modeling and process variable optimization of oxalic acid production from cashew apple juice: A Case Study of Surface Fermentation. Bio Resources. 2015;10(2): 2067-2082.

Yusof TRT, Man HC, Rahman NAAR, Hafid HS. Optimization of methane gas production from co-digestion of food waste and poultry manure using artificial neural network and response surface methodology. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(7):12-22.

Montingelli ME, Benyounis KY, Quilty B, Stokes J, Olabi AG. Optimization of biogas production from the macroalgae laminaria sp. at different periods of harvesting in Ireland. Applied Energy. 2016;177:671–682.

Pei P, Zhang C, Li J, Chang S, Li S, Wang J, Chen X. Optimization of NaOH pretreatment for enhancement of biogas production of banana pseudo- stem fiber using response surface methodology. Bio Resources. 2014;9(3): 5073-5087.

Giwa SO, Giwa A, Zeybek Z, Hapoglu H. Electrocoagulation treatment of petroleum refinery waste water: Optimization through RSM. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT). 2013; 2(8):606–615.