Asian Basic and Applied Research Journal https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ABAARJ <p><strong>Asian Basic and Applied Research Journal</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers&nbsp;in all areas of ‘research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.</p> <p style="text-align: left;">&nbsp;</p> Global Press Hub en-US Asian Basic and Applied Research Journal Investigation of Ionospheric Irregularities Over Nigeria Using the Global Navigation Satellite System https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ABAARJ/article/view/1940 <p>We investigated the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) total electron content (TEC) and rate of change index (ROTI) over Nigeria during the period of 2011 - 2016. The data was obtained from the fourteen stations of Nigerian permanent GNSS Network (NIGNET, www.nignet.net). MATLAB and GOPI GPS-TEC analysis application software version 2.9.2 was used to extract vertical total electron content (VTEC), time, azimuth and elevation angles, latitudes and longitudes from the raw GPS data. The elevation cut - off mask of \(45^{\circ}\) was used to reduce multipath error. The irregularities were quantified using the 30 s rate of change total electron content (ROT) and 5 min rate of ROTI, which detect irregularities with scale sizes in the range of 400 m - 2.5 km. The ROTI threshold for an ionospheric irregularity to have occurred was set at \(\ge\) 0.4. The percentage occurrence of ionospheric irregularity varies throughout the periods under study, with March and September equinoxes having the highest occurrence of ionospheric irregularities. We also observed that ionospheric irregularities mostly occur during the night-time in the March and September equinoxes in the year 2014 because of high solar activity. These study on the variations of the ionospheric percentage occurrence and intensities of ionospheric irregularities (characterized by the mean ROTI values) in the African equatorial region can be important in the interpreting and monitoring GNSS ionospheric irregularity occurrence over the stations.</p> C. C. Onuchukwu C. P. Okonkwo Copyright (c) 2024 © Copyright Global Press Hub. All rights reserved. 2024-02-01 2024-02-01 1 19 Determination of Pathloss Exponent 4G LTE Signal in Urban and Rural Environment of Southern Nigeria (Asaba in Delta State and Onitsha in Anambra State) https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ABAARJ/article/view/1942 <p>We investigated the radio frequency channel behavior based on extensive measurements of signal strength and other propagation parameters up to 1200 m from the base stations, adopting single sector verification technique in wet and dry season in urban and rural environments of Delta and Anambra States in Nigeria. The measurements were carried out at 800 MHz bands using Sony Ericson Test Mobile System (TEMS) phones and global positioning system connected to a laptop equipped with TEMS software and cell refs of the base stations in the studied areas. The estimated pathloss values were compared with four commonly used propagation models namely: Erceg, Cost-231, Ericson, and Standard University Interim (SUI). SUI model presented a better agreement with the measured pathloss based on root mean square error (RMSE) metrics analysis in all the considered environments in both seasons. Modification of the SUI model was carried out by including the pathloss exponent which performed better in predicting the pathloss compared with commonly used SUI propagation models. Climatological parameters such as pressure, temperature and relative humidity at ground surface over all the monitored environments were obtained between 2022 and 2023. These data were used to compute the refractivity gradient, effective earth radius (k-factor), and geoclimatic factor for the studied area. Results show that using the standard value of 1.33 for k-factor in the investigated environments, the required height of antenna for line-of-sight communication link setup may not be achieved. This may result in overestimation or underestimation of the required link budget needed for urban and rural environments in southern Nigeria environment.</p> G. O. Chimezie C. C. Onuchukwu N. A. Okereke Copyright (c) 2024 © Copyright Global Press Hub. All rights reserved. 2024-02-02 2024-02-02 20 35 Synthesis and Mechanical Properties of Polystyrene Blended with Sand Apricot Seed Oil (SAO) used as a Plasticizer https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ABAARJ/article/view/1946 <p>Polystyrene (PS) is well recognized as the most resilient thermoplastic polymer and is utilized in a diverse array of products owing to its adaptable characteristics. The present study centres on the synthesis and mechanical characterization of polystyrene blended with sand apricot seed oil (SAO), which was used as a plasticizer. SAO was extracted with hexane and employed as a plasticizer for styrene suspension polymerization. The findings on the quality of oil were explained in terms of&nbsp; oil content (9.0), specific gravity (0.931 ± 0.00), acid value (12.083 ± 0.12 mg KOH), iodine value (118.987 ± 0.40), saponification values (283.271), viscosity (85.23 Ns/m<sup>2</sup>), and refractive index (1.412). The FTIR of SAO affirmed the presence of alkene, isothiocyanate, phosphine, and alcohol, with a vibration frequency of 1607.612cm<sup>-1</sup>, 2064.996 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 2450.856cm<sup>-1</sup> and 3896.258 cm<sup>-1</sup>. The mechanical properties of the polystyrene blend with sand apricot seed oil (PS-SAO) at 100g obtained were ultimate tensile strength (58.6 MPa), Young modulus<strong> (</strong>1996.1 MPa<strong>), </strong>% elongation<strong> (</strong>13.4%), break load (500.6 N), peak load (586.7 N), and Shore D hardness (80.0). The results indicated that the mechanical characteristics of PS-SAO were comparable to those of the traditional white petroleum oil employed as a plasticizer. It is advisable to use sand apricot seed oil as a plasticizer due to its accessibility, affordability, and eco-friendliness.</p> Nwanneka Emilian Ireh Emmanuel Chidiebere Ezeh Okechukwu Paul Nsude Kingsley John Orie Emmanuel Agbaeze Copyright (c) 2024 © Copyright Global Press Hub. All rights reserved. 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 36 46 Fixed Point Results for “Two Pairs” of OWC- Maps in S - Spaces https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ABAARJ/article/view/1960 <p>Our aim in this paper, prove a ‘unique common fixed point’ result for two pairs of OWC (Occasionally Weakly Compatible) - maps in S-Spaces. Our results are generalizing and improving the known main results in the references.&nbsp;</p> K. Prudhvi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-06 2024-03-06 47 50