Prevalence of Ectoparasites Infestation of Chicken in Three Poultry Farms in Awka

Main Article Content

Omaka Onyekachi

Abstract

The study examined the Prevalence of Ectoparasites on poultry chicken in three selected poultry farms in Awka and Mgbakwu towns, Awka South and Awka North Local Government Area, Anambra State between the month of June and August 2017. A total of 300 chickens were examined in the three poultry farms namely; Aroma poultry farm, Chidoka poultry farm and Polytechnic Mgbakwu poultry farm. Both the skin and plugged feathers were thoroughly searched for the presence of ectoparasites, all the ectoparasites found were collected into specimen bottle and are identified using a stereoscopic microscope. The result indicates that (52.0%) of the chicken haboured ectoparasites infestation with polytechnic Mgbakwu poultry farm which recorded the highest prevalence, followed by Chidoka poultry farm (38.1%) then by Aroma poultry farm (9.7%). The result showed higher infestation in female (53.3%) than males (46.6%). Ectoparasite specie encountered most was Menacanthus stramineus (33.3%) followed by Echinophaga gallinacean (29.1%). The ages of the chicken ranges from chicks (1 week old) to layers (9 month old). The study also showed that at (p>0.05%) significance, the infection of the ectoparasite on the chicken were not dependent on sex but there were high significant difference on ages of the chicken at (p<0.05%). Therefore, application of integrated control strategy, good management practices and high level of proper hygiene practices were recommended.

Keywords:
Prevalence, ectoparasites, infestation, chicken and poultry farms

Article Details

How to Cite
Onyekachi, O. (2021). Prevalence of Ectoparasites Infestation of Chicken in Three Poultry Farms in Awka. Asian Basic and Applied Research Journal, 3(2), 1-13. Retrieved from https://globalpresshub.com/index.php/ABAARJ/article/view/1053
Section
Original Research Article

References

Angyiereyiri ED, Sackey I, Bonu-Ire MST. Survey on arthropod ectoparasites on goats and domestic fowls in Vunania, Navrongo, Ghana. Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 2015;9(2): 3371-3377.

FAO. FAOSTAT Statistical database of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome Italy; 2000.
Available:http://faostat.fao.org/

Ikpeze OO, Amagba IC, Eneanya CI. Preliminary survey of ectoparasites of chickens in Awka, South- Eastern Nigeria. Annual Resources International. 2008; 5(2):848-851.

Zumani B. Ectoparasites of indigenous Malawi chickens. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 2011;5(6): 1454-1460.

Nnadi PA, George SO. A cross-sectional survey on parasites of chickens in selected villages in the subhumid zones of southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Parasitology Resources. 2010;1–6.

Opara MN, Osowa DK, Maxwell JA. Blood and gastrointestinal parasites of chickens and turkeys reared in the tropical rainforest zone of Southeastern Nigeria. Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2014; 4:308-313.

Conroy C, Sparks N, Chandrasekaran D, Sharma A, Shindey D, Singh LR, Natarajan A, Anitha K. The significance of predation as a constraint in scavenging poultry systems: some findings from india. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2005;17: Article #70. Retrieved July 28, 2017,
Available:http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd17/6/conr17070.htm

Hobbenaghi RJ, Tavassoli M, Alimehr M, Shokrpoor S, Ghorbanzadeghan M. Histopathological study of the mite bitting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin. Veterinary Research Forum. 2012;3:205-208.

Mungube EO, Bauni SM, Muhammed L, Okwach EW, Nginyi JM, Mutuoki TK. A survey of the constraints affecting the productivity of the local scavenging chickens in the kionyweni cluster. Machakos District”, Kari Katumani, Annual Report; 2006.

Nyoni NMB, Masika PJ. Village chicken production practices in the Amatola Basin of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. African Journal of Agriculture Resources. 2012;17:2647-2652.

Ohaeri CC, Ugwu AU. Survey of ectoparasites of farm animals. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2013; 5:163-172.

Obi ZC, Anyaegbulam l, Orji MKN. Ectoparasitosis a challenge in sheep and goat production in Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Fauna Biology Study. 2010;1:27-29.

Flynn EN. Ectoparasites on goats and domestic fowls in Vunania, Navrongo, Ghana. Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 2003;9(2): 3371-3377.

Hickmann CS, Mclean JH. Systematics revision and suprageneric classification of trochacean gastropods science. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. 1990;35:1-169.

Ruff M. Important parasites in poultry production system. Vertinary Parasitology. 1999;3(84):337-347.

James RP. The merck, veterinary manual; merck sharp ectoparasites and classifications. Revised Science Technology Publication. 2013;13:985-1017.

Philips O, Gentry AH, Reynel C, Wilk P, Gavaez-Durand CB. Quantitative ethnobotany and Amazonian conservation. Conservation Biology. 1994;8:225- 248.

Chirico J, Eriksson H, Fossum O, Janesson D. The Erysipelothrise rhusiopathiare causing erysipelas in hens. Medical and veterinary. Entomology. 2003; 17(2):232-234.

Arends JJ. External parasites and, poultry pests. In: Diseases of poultry. 11th edition. Edited by Calnek W.B., John H., Beard, W.C. McDougald, L.R. and Saif, Y.M. Iowa State Press, Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, Iowa. 2003;905- 930.

Permin A, Hansen JW. Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of poultry parasites. FAO Rome. Italy; 1998.

Service MW. Medical entomology for students. Ist edition. London: Chapman and Hall. 1996;224-45:423-446.

Hopla CE, Durden LA, Keirans JE. Ectoparasites and classification. Revised Science Technology. 1994;13:985-1017.

Soulsby EJL. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domestic animal (7th edition.), williams and wilkins, Baltimore M.D. 1982;367-703.

Mbaya AW, Nwosu CO, Aliyu MM. Parasites and associated packed cell volume changes of captive wild birds in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Parasitology. 2007; 28(2):109-113.

Koutinas AF, Papazahriadou MG, Rallis FS, Tzlvara NH, Himonas CA. Flea species in Northern Greece: Environmental and clinical implications. Veterinary Parasitology. 1995;58:109-115.

Swai ES, Karimuribo ED, Kyakaisho PF, Mtui PF. Free-range village chickens on the humid coastal belt of Tanga, Tanzania: Their roles, husbandry and health status. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2007;19,article#104. Retrieved June 18TH, 2017, from Available:http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/8/swai19104.htm

Fabiyi JP. Lice infestation of domestic chicken in Nigeria, Bulletin of Animal Health Production in Africa. 1988;36:390 – 396.

Adamu NB, Adamu JY, Salisu L. Prevalence of ecto-,endo-, and haemoparasites in slaughtered dogs in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Journal of Vertinary Medicine. 2012;4(163):178-182.

Walker AR, Bonattour A, Camicas JJ, Estrada-Pena Harok IG, Latif AA, Pegram RG, Presto PM. Ticks of domestic animals in Africa: a guide to identification of species. Newsletter on ticks and tick borne diseases of livestock in the tropics version 29, Feb 2006.

Available:http://www.icttd.nl.

Last visited 1st August 2017 Available:http://www.alanrwalker.com/index/cms-filesystem-action/tickguide-africa-web-08.pdf

Mungube EO, Baun SM, Tenhagen BA, Wamae LW, Nzioka SM, Muhammed L, Nginyi JM. Prevalence of parasites of the local scavenging chickens in a selected semi-arid zone of Eastern Kenya”, Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2008;40:101-109.

Bala AY, Anka SA, Waziri A, Shehu H. Preliminary survey of ectoparasites infesting chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Four Areas of Sokoto Metropolis. Nigeria Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 2011;19:173-180.

Mungube OE, Bauni SM, Tenhagen BA, Wamae LM, Nzioka SM, Muhammed L, Nginyi JM. Prevalence of parasites of the local scavenging chickens in a selected semi-aride zone of Eastern Kenya. Tropical Animal Health Production. 2008; 40:101-109.

Nordenfors H, Hoglund J, Uggla A. Effects of temperature and humidity on oviposition, moulting and longevity of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).Journal of Economic Entomology. 1999;36:68-72.

Sparagano O, Pavlicevic A, Murano T. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry redmites Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems. Journal of Experimental and Applied Acarology. 2009;1(48):3-10.

Evans MR, Goldsmish AR, Narris SRA. The effects of testosterone on antibody production and plumage colouration in male house sparrows (passer domesticans). Behavioural Ecology of Socio-biology. 2000;47:156-163

Allen PL, Danforth HD, Augustine PC. Interaction of dietary flaxseed with coccidiossis infection in chickens. Poultry Science. 1997a;76:822-827.

Sabuni AZ. Prevalence, intensity and pathology of ecto- and haemo-parasites infections in indigenous chicken in eastern province of Kenya.MSC Thesis, University of Nairobi; 2009.

Maina AN. Prevalence, intensity and lesion associated with gastrointestinal parasites of indigenous chicken in Kenya. MSC thesis. University of Nairobi; 2005.

Amede Y, Tilahun K, Bekele M. Prevalence of ectoparasites in Haramaya University Intensive Poultry Farm. Global Veterinary. 2011;7:264-269.

Ruedisueli FL, Manship B. Tick identification key. University of Lincoln; 2006.
Available:http://webpages.lincoln.ac.uk/fruedisueli/FR-webpages/parasitology/Ticks/TIK/tick-key/softticksadult.htm

Retrieved 25th July 2017.

Wall R, Shearer D. Veterinary ectoparasites: Biology, pathology and control. (2nd edition). Blackwell Science, Paris. 2001;23-54.

Irungu LW, Kimani RN, Kissia SM. Helminthic parasities in intestinal tract of indigenous poultry. Journal of South African Referring Association. 2004;75(1): 58-59.